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Addressing Workplace Violence Against Nurses Essay Discussion

Addressing Workplace Violence Against Nurses Essay Discussion

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The Role of the Nurse: Addressing Workplace Violence Against Nurses

Workplace violence against nurses has become a pandemic, with as many as 50% of nurses suffering some form of violence when undertaking professional responsibilities at some point in their careers (Al-Qadi, 2021). Compared to other workplace environments, healthcare is noted to have a higher risk of psychological, sexual, and physical injury to the personnel. It is not unusual to have incidents where healthcare staff are assaulted, threatened, or abused in work-related circumstances, whether within or outside healthcare facilities (Kafle et al., 2022). Workplace violence presents a significant concern as it is related to increased fear, post-traumatic stress disorder, fatigue, sleep disorder, burnout, absenteeism, job stress, suicide, and decreased job satisfaction among healthcare workers. It negatively affects nurses, resulting in decreased quality of care and productivity (Huckenpahler & Gold, 2022). A significant concern is that healthcare workers have become desensitized to workplace violence to the point that it has become an expected and accepted occupational hazard, rationalizing it as part of their job (Hou et al., 2022)Addressing Workplace Violence Against Nurses Essay Discussion. This paper aims to elucidate the nature of workplace violence, its consequences, and strategies that can be applied to prevent its occurrence and minimize its effects among nurses as they provide direct care to patients, thereby placing them at higher risk of experiencing workplace violence.

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Prevalence of Workplace Violence

Workplace violence is a significant concern within the healthcare environment both in the USA and across the world. It is identified as the intentional use of power or force to threaten or harm others, resulting in a high probability of deprivation, mal-development, psychological harm, injury, or death. More than 50% of nurses have been subjected to some form of workplace violence, with 25% of them reporting being physically assaulted across the world. This causes a 17.2% turnover among nurses as they are victimized more than other healthcare professions. In the USA, workplace violence is reported at 2.8 events per 100 bed days (as of 2016), for which medical organizations across the country spend $1.1 billion in training and security, and $429 million in medical care, staffing, and insurance (Al-Qadi, 2021).

Lim et al. (2022) that 73% of all non-fatal workplace illnesses and injuries are resultant of workplace violence. As much as 38% of all nurses suffer some form of workplace violence during the course of their careers. Many of these workplace violence incidences are perpetrated by patients and their family members or friends who may have been overwhelmed by worries, fears, uncertainties, shock, and panic attacks, causing them to vent their frustrations and anger on nurses as the nearest targets. The prevalence of workplace violence against nurses is reported at 62.4%. 61.2% of incidences are associated with verbal abuse, 50.8% are associated with psychological violence, 39.5% are associated with threats, 13.7% are associated with physical violence, and 6.3% are associated with sexual harassment (Lim et al., 2022)Addressing Workplace Violence Against Nurses Essay Discussion.

Types and forms of workplace violence

Al-Qadi (2021) identifies four types of violence that nurses may face based on intent. First, Type I in which there is criminal intent as the perpetrator of the violence has no relationship with the nurses or the healthcare organization. Second, Type II in which a patient has a relation with the healthcare institution and becomes violent while receiving services. Third, Type III in which the nurses face workplace violence from other personnel employed in the organization. Fourth, Type IV in which nurses face violence from personal relationships that may not extend to the workplace (Al-Qadi, 2021).

Bernardes et al. (2021) report that nurses face five forms of workplace violence. First, verbal abuse involves a range of words and behaviors used to manipulate, intimidate, and maintain power and control over an individual. It includes attempts to scare, isolate, and control, the silent treatment, ridicule, humiliation, and insults. Second, mobbing involves ‘ganging up’ on an individual. It is typically executed by a leader (who can be a patient, subordinate, co-worker, or manager) who rallies others into systematic and frequent ‘gang-ups’ against the victim. Third, physical violence involves hurting or trying to hurt someone by physical force, such as denying medical care, biting, hair-pulling, slapping, shoving, pinching, grabbing, burning, spitting, kicking, and hitting. Fourth, sexual harassment includes requests for sexual favors, unwelcome sexual advances, and physical or verbal harassment of a sexual nature. Fifth, racial discrimination is any discrimination against an individual based on ethnic origin, race, or skin color. Discrimination can involve refusing to share resources, socialize with, receive care from, provide care to, or do business with people of a certain group (Bernades et al., 2021; Lim et al., 2022)Addressing Workplace Violence Against Nurses Essay Discussion.

Consequences of workplace violence

The consequences of workplace violence are related to the service delivery of nurses. This is manifested through increased frequency of errors, low productivity, high turnover rates, intention to quit the job, burnout, emotional stress, decreased job satisfaction, absenteeism, and increased sick leave. Nurses who feel threatened will not be inspired to work better (Al-Qadi, 2021). The impact of workplace violence on nurses can be significant and long-lasting. It may present psychological and physical symptoms associated with post-traumatic stress disorder, such as flashbacks, nightmares, anxiety, and insomnia. The nurses may also suffer physical harm and, in extreme cases, death (Pich & Roche, 2020)Addressing Workplace Violence Against Nurses Essay Discussion.

In addition to the noted consequences, workplace violence has financial impacts. It has direct costs, particularly from litigation. The healthcare organization may face liability cases for failing to take preventive and practice measures. Besides that, it has indirect costs ranging from lost work days to lost wages, higher than average nurse turnover, increased requests for medical leave, and stress-related illnesses (Nater et al., 2023).

Risk factors and protective strategies

The occurrence of workplace violence within the healthcare setting is associated with nurse/worker, perpetrator, and environmental/setting risk factors. The worker risk factors are previous workplace violence training, marital status, age, gender, hours worked, and years of experience. The perpetrator risk factors are being a victim of violence, possessing weapons, ineffectively dealing with situational crises, being under the influence of alcohol or drugs, and having mental health disorders. The environmental risk factors are the presence of security cameras, the presence of security officers, physical barriers, and the time of day (Murray, 2022). The protective strategies against the risk factors are limiting interactions with known or potential perpetrators, instructing the perpetrator to stop the violence, leveraging social- and self-support, and self-defense (Murray, 2022)Addressing Workplace Violence Against Nurses Essay Discussion.

Preventing and addressing workplace violence

Nurses are at increased risk for workplace aggression owing to their position as primary care providers in constant contact with patients. Preventing and addressing workplace violence against nurses requires that they prepare themselves for the possibility of workplace violence through training and education. Six prevention strategies are identified. First, getting involved in workplace violence prevention efforts through awareness of relevant policies and programs, attending personal safety training programs, and participating in safety and security committees and meetings. In addition, reporting incidents accurately and promptly. Second, dressing for safety by using breakaway safety cords, wearing clothing that is not too tight or too loose, avoiding necklaces and earrings that could be pulled, tying back the hair, and removing anything that could be used as a weapon (Yoder-Wise & Sportsman, 2022). Third, being aware of the work environment by noting times of disruptive behaviors such as meal times and shift changes, background noises and crowding, and noting the exits and emergency contact information. Fourth, being aware of patient behaviors, particularly the verbal and non-verbal cues that could be a precursor to violence. Verbal cues include threatening tone of voice, swearing, and yelling or speaking loudly. Non-verbal cues are noted in the behavior to include indications of intoxication, quick changes in behavior, throwing objects, threatening or aggressive posture, fixed stare, agitation, pacing, heavy breathing, clenched fists, arms held tightly against the chest, and neglected hygiene. Fifth, checking socio-cultural biases, such as language barrier, could frustrate a patient thereby increasing their anxiety to the point of lashing out through violence. Sixth, using workplace violence risk assessment tools to evaluate the potential for violence (Nater et al., 2023)Addressing Workplace Violence Against Nurses Essay Discussion.

Role of nurses – advocacy, leadership, communication, collaboration

Nurses have a role in preventing and addressing workplace violence through advocacy, leadership, communication, and collaboration. First, nurses lobby governments and legislative bodies to introduce comprehensive and effective legal protections and standards for the workplace. Second, supporting the introduction of formal training on workplace violence. Third, lobbying and working with leaders to build partnerships that introduce and campaign for safe and respectful work environments. This may include sharing experiences of workplace violence to improve risk assessment of dangerous or potentially dangerous situations (Cherry & Jacob, 2019). Fourth, advocating for nurses to have legal, psychological, and paid leave support as appropriate. Fifth, negotiating the introduction and maintenance of appropriate legislative regulatory protections and collective agreement clauses in the form of grievance procedures and systems, workplace safety plans, security measures, and violence prevention strategies. Sixth, raising awareness of the nursing and public community to the signs and symptoms of violence against all persons who may be at risk of bullying or violence. This may involve formally reporting incidences of workplace violence. Finally, developing and disseminating evidence-based policies on the prevention of violence. This requires that nurses engage in research to contribute reliable data and support the development of consistent and comparable measures to facilitate research and compare findings (Huber & Joseph, 2022)Addressing Workplace Violence Against Nurses Essay Discussion.

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References

Al-Qadi, M. M. (2021). Workplace violence in nursing: A concept analysis. Journal of Occupational Health, 63(1), e12226. https://doi.org/10.1002/1348-9585.12226

Bernardes, M. L. G., Karino, M. E., Martins, J. T., Okubo, C. V. C., Galdino, M. J. Q., & Moreira, A. A. O. (2021). Workplace violence among nursing professionals. Revista Brasileira Medicina Trabalho, 18(3), 250–257. https://doi.org/10.47626/1679-4435-2020-531

Cherry, B., & Jacob, S. R. (2019). Contemporary Nursing: Issues, Trends, & Management (8th ed.). Elsevier, Inc.

Hou, Y., Corbally, M., & Timmins, F. (2022). Violence against nurses by patients and visitors in the emergency department: A concept analysis. Journal of Nursing Management, 30(6), 1688–1699. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13721

Huber, D. L., & Joseph, M. L. (2022). Leadership and Nursing Care Management (7th ed.). Elsevier, Inc.

Huckenpahler, A. L., & Gold, J. A. (2022). Risky business: Violence in healthcare. Missouri Medicine, 119(6), 514–518. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9762232/

Kafle, S., Paudel, S., Thapaliya, A., & Acharya, R. (2022). Workplace violence against nurses: A narrative review. Journal of Clinical and Translational Research, 8(5), 421–424. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9536186/

Lim, M. C., Jeffree, M. S., Saupin, S. S., Giloi, N., & Lukman, K. A. (2022). Workplace violence in healthcare settings: The risk factors, implications and collaborative preventive measures. Annals of Medicine and Surgery, 78, 103727. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2022.103727

Murray, E. (2022). Nursing Leadership and Management for Patient Safety and Quality Care (2nd ed.). F.A. Davis Company.

Nater, F. P., Van Fleet, D. D., & Van Fleet, E. W. (2023). Combating Workplace Violence: Creating and Maintaining Safe Work Environments. Information Age Publishing Incorporated.

Pich, J., & Roche, M. (2020). Violence on the job: The experiences of nurses and midwives with violence from patients and their friends and relatives. Healthcare, 8(4), 522. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040522

Yoder-Wise, P. S., & Sportsman, S. (2022). Leading and Managing in Nursing (8th ed). Elsevier Health Sciences. Addressing Workplace Violence Against Nurses Essay Discussion

Summary

Workplace violence significantly affects nurses, with as many as 50% of them being victims when undertaking professional responsibilities. Nurses are assaulted, threatened, or abused in work-related circumstances, whether within or outside healthcare facilities. They are subjected to verbal abuse, mobbing, physical attacks, sexual harassment, and racial discrimination. The occurrence of workplace violence increases fear, post-traumatic stress disorder, fatigue, sleep disorder, burnout, absenteeism, job stress, suicide, and decreased job satisfaction among nurses. In addition, it has financial impacts from litigation, lost work days, and lost wages. Risk factors associated with workplace violence are worker, perpetrator, and environmental risk factors. The presence of security cameras, security officers, and physical barriers act as protective factors that deter workplace violence. A seven-step structured approach is identified for preventing workplace violence: performing risk assessment, conducting background checks, clarifying responsibilities and reporting protocols, establishing procedures, offering ongoing training and support, installing surveillance systems, and distributing safety devices. Besides that, six prevention strategies are identified: getting involved in prevention efforts, dressing for safety, awareness of workplace environment, awareness of patient behaviors, checking socio-cultural biases, and using workplace violence risk assessment tools. Nurses cal play a role in addressing workplace violence by lobbying governments and legislative bodies, supporting formal training, building partnerships, advocating for appropriate support, raising awareness, dressing for safety, and developing and disseminating evidence-based policies on the prevention of violence.

The Role of the Nurse: Addressing Workplace Violence Against Nurses

Workplace violence against nurses has become a pandemic, with as many as 50% of nurses suffering some form of violence when undertaking professional responsibilities at some point in their careers (Al-Qadi, 2021). Compared to other workplace environments, healthcare is noted to have a higher risk of psychological, sexual, and physical injury to the personnel. It is not unusual to have incidents where healthcare staff are assaulted, threatened, or abused in work-related circumstances, whether within or outside healthcare facilities (Kafle et al., 2022)Addressing Workplace Violence Against Nurses Essay Discussion. Workplace violence presents a significant concern as it is related to increased fear, post-traumatic stress disorder, fatigue, sleep disorder, burnout, absenteeism, job stress, suicide, and decreased job satisfaction among healthcare workers. It negatively affects nurses, resulting in decreased quality of care and productivity (Huckenpahler & Gold, 2022). A significant concern is that healthcare workers have become desensitized to workplace violence to the point that it has become an expected and accepted occupational hazard, rationalizing it as part of their job (Hou et al., 2022). This paper aims to elucidate the nature of workplace violence, its consequences, and strategies that can be applied to prevent its occurrence and minimize its effects among nurses.

Prevalence of Workplace Violence

Workplace violence is a significant concern within the healthcare environment both in the USA and across the world. It is identified as the intentional use of power or force to threaten or harm others, resulting in a high probability of deprivation, mal-development, psychological harm, injury, or death. More than 50% of nurses have been subjected to some form of workplace violence, with 25% of them reporting being physically assaulted across the world (Al-Qadi, 2021). This causes a 17.2% turnover among nurses as they are victimized more than other healthcare professions. In the USA, workplace violence is reported at 2.8 events per 100 bed days (as of 2016), for which medical organizations across the country spend $1.1 billion in training and security, and $429 million in medical care, staffing, and insurance (Al-Qadi, 2021).

Lim et al. (2022) indicate that 73% of all non-fatal workplace illnesses and injuries are resultant of workplace violence. As much as 38% of all nurses suffer some form of workplace violence during the course of their careers. Many of these workplace violence incidences are perpetrated by patients and their family members or friends who may have been overwhelmed by worries, fears, uncertainties, shock, and panic attacks, causing them to vent their frustrations and anger on nurses as the nearest targets. The prevalence of workplace violence against nurses is reported at 62.4%. 61.2% of incidences are associated with verbal abuse, 50.8% are associated with psychological violence, 39.5% are associated with threats, 13.7% are associated with physical violence, and 6.3% are associated with sexual harassment (Lim et al., 2022).

Types and forms of workplace violence

Al-Qadi (2021) identifies four types of violence that nurses may face based on intent. First, Type I in which there is criminal intent as the perpetrator of the violence has no relationship with the nurses or the healthcare organization. Second, Type II in which a patient has a relationship with the healthcare institution and becomes violent while receiving services. Third, Type III in which the nurses face workplace violence from other personnel employed in the organization. Fourth, Type IV in which nurses face violence from personal relationships that may not extend to the workplace (Al-Qadi, 2021)Addressing Workplace Violence Against Nurses Essay Discussion.

Bernardes et al. (2021) report that nurses face five forms of workplace violence. First, verbal abuse involves a range of words and behaviors used to manipulate, intimidate, and maintain power and control over an individual. It includes attempts to scare, isolate, and control, the silent treatment, ridicule, humiliation, and insults. Second, mobbing involves ‘ganging up’ on an individual. It is typically executed by a leader (who can be a patient, subordinate, co-worker, or manager) who rallies others into systematic and frequent ‘gang-ups’ against the victim. Third, physical violence involves hurting or trying to hurt someone by physical force, such as denying medical care, biting, hair-pulling, slapping, shoving, pinching, grabbing, burning, spitting, kicking, and hitting. Fourth, sexual harassment includes requests for sexual favors, unwelcome sexual advances, and physical or verbal harassment of a sexual nature. Fifth, racial discrimination is any discrimination against an individual based on ethnic origin, race, or skin color. Discrimination can involve refusing to share resources, socialize with, receive care from, provide care to, or do business with people of a certain group (Bernades et al., 2021; Lim et al., 2022)Addressing Workplace Violence Against Nurses Essay Discussion.

Consequences of workplace violence

The consequences of workplace violence are related to the service delivery of nurses. This is manifested through increased frequency of errors, low productivity, high turnover rates, intention to quit the job, burnout, emotional stress, decreased job satisfaction, absenteeism, and increased sick leave. Nurses who feel threatened will not be inspired to work better (Al-Qadi, 2021). The impact of workplace violence on nurses can be significant and long-lasting. It may present psychological and physical symptoms associated with post-traumatic stress disorder, such as flashbacks, nightmares, anxiety, and insomnia. The nurses may also suffer physical harm and, in extreme cases, death (Pich & Roche, 2020).

In addition to the noted consequences, workplace violence has financial impacts. It has direct costs, particularly from litigation. The healthcare organization may face liability cases for failing to take preventive and practice measures. Besides that, it has indirect costs ranging from lost work days to lost wages, higher than average nurse turnover, increased requests for medical leave, and stress-related illnesses (Nater et al., 2023).

Risk factors and protective strategies

The occurrence of workplace violence within the healthcare setting is associated with nurse/worker, perpetrator, and environmental/setting risk factors. The worker risk factors are previous workplace violence training, marital status, age, and gender. First, previous workplace violence training prepares individual nurses to better identify and address incidences likely to turn into workplace violence if left unaddressed. Second, unmarried nurses are likely to become victims of workplace violence owing to the perception that they may not have any marital responsibilities. Marital status sets up power dynamics that identify unmarried nurses are easier victims of workplace violence. Third, age has a significant influence as young nurses may lack the self-confidence to resist unwelcome overtures and challenging conduct that may make them uncomfortable. They are more susceptible to being taken advantage of, particularly by those who may be older and those who may be in superior positions. Fourth, gender has an influence as women are more likely to face workplace violence. Above all, harassment is a manifestation of power relations, and women are more likely to be victims of workplace violence precisely because they more often than men lack power, have been socialized to suffer in silence, lack self-confidence, and are in more insecure and vulnerable positions (Flannery, 2022)Addressing Workplace Violence Against Nurses Essay Discussion.

The perpetrator risk factors are being a victim of violence, possessing weapons, ineffectively dealing with situational crises, being under the influence of alcohol or drugs, and having mental health disorders. First, while past victims of violence do not always become perpetrators, most perpetrators have been victims. The victimization experience produces negative behavioral, mental, and physical outcomes, with some of the victims going on to perpetrate workplace violence. Second, a weapon acts as a power tool that facilitates the commission of workplace violence. Third, ineffectively dealing with situational crises could result in escalation that presents opportunities for workplace violence. Fourth, being inebriated with alcohol or drugs results in impaired decision-making that could manifest as workplace violence. Fifth, having mental health issues may result in trouble understanding the relationship between actions and outcomes, thereby increasing propensity for violence (Brady et al., 2021).

The environmental risk factors are the absence of security cameras, the absence of security officers, and physical access. The presence of security cameras, security officers, and physical barriers act as protective factors that deter workplace violence. Other protective strategies against the risk factors are limiting interactions with known or potential perpetrators, instructing the perpetrator to stop the violence, leveraging social- and self-support, and self-defense (Murray, 2022).

Preventing and addressing workplace violence

The specific prevention and intervention strategies adopted are dependent on the type and form of workplace violence faced. It is important to understand that there is no way to eliminate all risks of workplace violence, but steps can be taken to mitigate the risks. The first step involves performing risk assessments. This evaluates the specific risks, nature of the work, and worker risk factors. Second, conducting background checks on potential new hires. This helps in catching potential red flags and addressing them before bringing in personnel who would threaten the safety of others. Third, clarifying responsibilities and reporting protocols so that risk factors are identified and addressed at the earliest opportunity even as they emerge. Fourth, establishing procedures for addressing workplace violence, including lockdown procedures. This ensures that the situation does not escalate or spread to other areas and persons. Fifth, offering ongoing training and support. This ensures that personnel have knowledge that can be implemented when required, such as knowing how to handle a violent patient. Sixth, installing surveillance systems helps to act as a deterrence while giving peace of mind. Knowing that a surveillance system is in place can deter attacks and harassment from happening. Seventh, distributing safety devices, such as a panic button or communication tools. This helps the personnel to report problems and get help as quickly as possible (Brady et al., 2021)Addressing Workplace Violence Against Nurses Essay Discussion.

Nurses are at increased risk for workplace aggression owing to their position as primary care providers in constant contact with patients. Preventing and addressing workplace violence against nurses requires that they prepare themselves for the possibility of workplace violence through training and education. Six prevention strategies are identified. First, getting involved in workplace violence prevention efforts through awareness of relevant policies and programs, attending personal safety training programs, and participating in safety and security committees and meetings. In addition, reporting incidents accurately and promptly. Second, dressing for safety by using breakaway safety cords, wearing clothing that is not too tight or too loose, avoiding necklaces and earrings that could be pulled, tying back the hair, and removing anything that could be used as a weapon (Yoder-Wise & Sportsman, 2022). Third, being aware of the workplace environment by noting times of disruptive behaviors such as meal times and shift changes, background noises and crowding, and noting the exits and emergency contact information. Fourth, being aware of patient behaviors, particularly the verbal and non-verbal cues that could be a precursor to violence. Verbal cues include threatening tone of voice, swearing, and yelling or speaking loudly. Non-verbal cues are noted in the behavior to include indications of intoxication, quick changes in behavior, throwing objects, threatening or aggressive posture, fixed stare, agitation, pacing, heavy breathing, clenched fists, arms held tightly against the chest, and neglected hygiene. Fifth, checking socio-cultural biases, such as language barrier. A language barrier could limit communication and frustrate a patient thereby increasing their anxiety to the point of lashing out through violence. Sixth, using workplace violence risk assessment tools to evaluate the potential for violence (Nater et al., 2023)Addressing Workplace Violence Against Nurses Essay Discussion.

Role of nurses

Nurses have a role in preventing and addressing workplace violence through advocacy, leadership, communication, and collaboration. First, nurses lobby governments and legislative bodies to introduce comprehensive and effective legal protections and standards for the workplace. Second, supporting the introduction of formal training on workplace violence. Third, lobbying and working with leaders to build partnerships that introduce and campaign for safe and respectful work environments. This may include sharing experiences of workplace violence to improve risk assessment of dangerous or potentially dangerous situations (Cherry & Jacob, 2019). Fourth, advocating for nurses to have legal, psychological, and paid leave support as appropriate. Fifth, negotiating the introduction and maintenance of appropriate legislative regulatory protections and collective agreement clauses in the form of grievance procedures and systems, workplace safety plans, security measures, and violence prevention strategies. Sixth, raising awareness of the nursing and public community to the signs and symptoms of violence against all persons who may be at risk of bullying or violence. This may involve formally reporting incidences of workplace violence. Seventh, dressing for safety by wearing clothing that allows for freedom of movement but are not overly loose. Also, avoiding necklaces, earrings, and other jewelry that can easily be pilled, and using breakaway cords on dangling nametags, keys, and glasses. Finally, developing and disseminating evidence-based policies on the prevention of violence. This requires that nurses engage in research to contribute reliable data and support the development of consistent and comparable measures to facilitate research and compare findings (Huber & Joseph, 2022).

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Conclusion

One must accept that workplace violence presents a significant concern with as many as 50% of nurses suffering some form of violence when undertaking professional responsibilities at some point in their careers. The occurrence of workplace violence is linked to 17.2% nurse turnover, and $1.1 billion in training and security expenses, and $429 million in medical care, staffing, and insurance expenses. In addition, one must acknowledge that there are different types and forms of workplace violence, including verbal abuse, mobbing, physical violence, sexual harassment, and racial discrimination. The occurrence of workplace violence is associated with increased frequency of errors, low productivity, high turnover rates, intention to quit the job, burnout, emotional stress, decreased job satisfaction, absenteeism, and increased sick leave among nurses. The risk factors for workplace violence are victim, perpetrator, and environmental risk factors. The strategies for preventing and addressing workplace violence are performing risk assessment, conducting background checks, clarifying responsibilities and reporting protocols, establishing procedures for addressing workplace violence, offering ongoing training and support, installing surveillance systems, and distributing safety devices. Six prevention strategies are identified for nurses, including awareness of relevant policies and programs, dressing for safety, awareness of workplace environment, awareness of patient behaviors, checking socio-cultural biases, and using workplace violence risk assessment tools. Nurses can play a significant role in preventing workplace violence by lobbying for workplace improvements, getting formal training, building partnerships, getting appropriate support, negotiating for appropriate legislation and regulatory protections, raising awareness, dressing for safety, and developing and disseminating evidence-based policies on the prevention of workplace violence.

References

Al-Qadi, M. M. (2021). Workplace violence in nursing: A concept analysis. Journal of Occupational Health, 63(1), e12226. https://doi.org/10.1002/1348-9585.12226

Bernardes, M. L. G., Karino, M. E., Martins, J. T., Okubo, C. V. C., Galdino, M. J. Q., & Moreira, A. A. O. (2021). Workplace violence among nursing professionals. Revista Brasileira Medicina Trabalho, 18(3), 250–257. https://doi.org/10.47626/1679-4435-2020-531

Brady, C., Lawrence, C., Beale, D., Leather, P., & Cox, T. (2021). Work-Related Violence. Taylor & Francis.

Cherry, B., & Jacob, S. R. (2019). Contemporary Nursing: Issues, Trends, & Management (8th ed.). Elsevier, Inc.

Flannery, R. B. (2022). Violence in the Workplace. American Mental Health Foundation Incorporated.

Hou, Y., Corbally, M., & Timmins, F. (2022). Violence against nurses by patients and visitors in the emergency department: A concept analysis. Journal of Nursing Management, 30(6), 1688–1699. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.13721

Huber, D. L., & Joseph, M. L. (2022). Leadership and Nursing Care Management (7th ed.). Elsevier, Inc.

Huckenpahler, A. L., & Gold, J. A. (2022). Risky business: Violence in healthcare. Missouri Medicine, 119(6), 514–518. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9762232/

Kafle, S., Paudel, S., Thapaliya, A., & Acharya, R. (2022). Workplace violence against nurses: A narrative review. Journal of Clinical and Translational Research, 8(5), 421–424. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9536186/

Lim, M. C., Jeffree, M. S., Saupin, S. S., Giloi, N., & Lukman, K. A. (2022). Workplace violence in healthcare settings: The risk factors, implications and collaborative preventive measures. Annals of Medicine and Surgery, 78, 103727. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2022.103727

Murray, E. (2022). Nursing Leadership and Management for Patient Safety and Quality Care (2nd ed.). F.A. Davis Company.

Nater, F. P., Van Fleet, D. D., & Van Fleet, E. W. (2023). Combating Workplace Violence: Creating and Maintaining Safe Work Environments. Information Age Publishing Incorporated.

Pich, J., & Roche, M. (2020). Violence on the job: The experiences of nurses and midwives with violence from patients and their friends and relatives. Healthcare, 8(4), 522. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040522

Yoder-Wise, P. S., & Sportsman, S. (2022). Leading and Managing in Nursing (8th ed). Elsevier Health Sciences. Addressing Workplace Violence Against Nurses Essay Discussion

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