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Applied Behavioral Analysis Therapy for Autism Discussion Paper

Applied Behavioral Analysis Therapy for Autism Discussion Paper

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Reply to these three discussion post replies. These were responses based on my presentation which I have attached for your reference. Your response can be 2-3 paragraphs with APA citations and references.
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REPLY # 1
Hi David,

Thank you for the presentation. I enjoyed learning about applied behavior analysis. To answer your second question, it appears that the usefulness and effectiveness of ABA in adults is still up for debate with ongoing research. I actually found a pretty controversial study covering the concerns with ABA use in adults with autism. It seems that the primary research has been done on ABA in children.

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In one meta-analysis examining the efficacy of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), 14 randomized control trials with 555 participants were analyzed. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of ABA in managing various symptoms in children with ASD. The findings indicated potential benefits in areas such as socialization, communication, and expressive language. However, the study did not observe significant effects in general autism symptoms, receptive language, and several other areas, including adaptive behavior, daily living skills, and cognitive abilities (Anderson, 2023)Applied Behavioral Analysis Therapy for Autism Discussion Paper.

In contrast, another study focusing on the experiences of seven adults with autism who underwent ABA interventions during childhood reveals significant concerns. Participants reported traumatic memories associated with ABA, expressed a belief that they should not be forced to behave like their neurotypical peers, and indicated both short-term benefits and long-term negative consequences. This study raises ethical questions about ABA, with participants advocating for alternatives to ABA and urging practitioners to listen more to the ASD community (Yu et al., 2020)Applied Behavioral Analysis Therapy for Autism Discussion Paper. I think the use of ABA in adults should be determined on a patient-to-patient basis. The severity of their autism symptoms and life experiences, along with of course their individual interest in the psychotherapy, should be considered before ABA initiation.

Thanks again for the presentation!
References:
Anderson, L. K. (2023). Autistic experiences of applied behavior analysis. Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, 27(3), 737–750. https://doi-org.frontier.idm.oclc.org/10.1177/13623613221118216Links to an external site.

Yu, Q., Li, E., Li, L., & Liang, W. (2020). Efficacy of interventions based on applied behavior analysis for autism spectrum disorder: A meta-analysis. Psychiatry Investigation, 17(5), 432–443. https://doi-org.frontier.idm.oclc.org/10.30773/pi.2019.0229Links to an external site.

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REPLY #2

Hi David,
Thank you for your presentation! It was very informative on ABA. I especially liked how you highlighted the positives and negatives to the ABD approach. I can recognize how the positive reinforcement techniques of ABA can be valuable. That when exercised appropriately they can improve children’s self-care skills, social skills and play skills. Acquiring these behavioral skills will be beneficial to an individual throughout their life.

One of the articles that I read highlighted the fact that utilization of ABA had a significant improvement on the acquisition of skills for the child with autism. The skills that showed improvement included such things as attention skills, imitation skills, receptive language skills, expressive language skills and academic skills. The participants were between the ages of 4 – 11 years old. The article also acknowledged that each child is unique and their starting point of skills acquisition is unique. That the differences of each child needs to be recognized before proceeding with the therapy (da Silva et al., 2023)Applied Behavioral Analysis Therapy for Autism Discussion Paper.

The second article that I read discussed the importance of the consistent use of ABA therapy. The article states that the traditional implementation of ABA is somewhat disorganized. At the same time the article reports that ABA is widely recognized as being beneficial to autistic patients. The article further emphasized the need to develop individualized treatment plans as the most effective method of properly utilizing this therapy (Garikipati et al., 2023).

References
da Silva, A. P., Bezerra, I. M. P., Antunes, T. P. C., Cavalcanti, M. P. E., & de Abreu, L. C. (2023). Applied behavioral analysis for the skill performance of children with autism spectrum disorder. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 14, 1093252. https://doi-org.frontier.idm.oclc.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2023.1093252Links to an external site.

Garikipati, A., Ciobanu, M., Singh, N. P., Barnes, G., Decurzio, J., Mao, Q., & Das, R. (2023). Clinical Outcomes of a Hybrid Model Approach to Applied Behavioral Analysis Treatment. Cureus, 15(3), e36727. https://doi-org.frontier.idm.oclc.org/10.7759/cureus.36727Links to an external site. Applied Behavioral Analysis Therapy for Autism Discussion Paper
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REPLY #3

Hi David,
I enjoyed your project on applied behavioral analysis therapy. I went to college with a girl who is a private ABA therapist and was always curious about what that meant. When I was looking up research on ABA to answer your question about the importance of helping families and parents understand the application of this model, I found that ABA is a successful mode of therapy to help children with autism acquire greater communication skills (Al Sabi, 2023). Al Sabi (2023) found that children with ASD who received ABA therapy showed a significant improvement in their language and communication skills. This allowed the child to establish stronger relationships with their family and the community (Al Sabi, 2023). Children who received ABA also had more self-confidence to express themselves and they continued to use their communication skills after the program was completed (Al Sabi, 2023)Applied Behavioral Analysis Therapy for Autism Discussion Paper.

One point of contention with this therapy is whether or not it can be applied with success to older children or adults. From what I could find, they are still unsure if ABA is useful as children become older. One study by Dallman et al. (2020) theorizes that as children age, they tend to need more diverse services such as career and vocational training. Previously used services and therapies such as ABA may get pushed aside so the patient is able to have time to learn new skills (Dallman et al., 2020)Applied Behavioral Analysis Therapy for Autism Discussion Paper. They also theorize that as children age and no longer receive ABA in the school system, parents or caregivers are unable to afford continued allied health services (Dallman et al., 2020). I think both of these points could be part of the reason older patients sometimes do not receive needed or beneficial services. I believe that we should educate our patients and their caregivers on the services and therapies that they can receive and where they can find them in their communities.

References

Al Sabi, Y. N. (2023). The impact of an applied behavioral analysis-based training program on the development of communicative skills among children with autism disorder. Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses, 17, 1–5. doi:10.3371/CSRP.MMWY.100125

Dallman, A. R., Artis, J., Watson, L., & Wright, S. (2020). Systematic review of disparities and differences in the access and use of allied health services amongst children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 51(4), 1316–1330. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04608-yLinks to an external site. Applied Behavioral Analysis Therapy for Autism Discussion Paper

Reply 1

Hello, I am glad the PowerPoint enhanced your understanding of applied behavior analysis (ABA). However, I contradict your claim concerning the efficacy and usefulness of ABA in managing symptoms in adults with autism. The ABA is commonly used in treating autism in children and adolescents. Additionally, this treatment model is practical and effective in improving autism symptoms among adults (Custer et al., 2021). The ABA therapy program enhances communication and language skills in adults. Custer et al. (2021) reported the efficacy of the ABA model in improving conversation skills among adults diagnosed with autism. Furthermore, it boosts focus, attention, memory, social skills, and academic performance. Therefore, principles of the ABA treatment apply to all patient profiles.

References

Will, M. N., Currans, K., Smith, J., Weber, S., Duncan, A., Burton, J., … & Anixt, J. (2018). Evidenced-based interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder. Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care48(10), 234-249.

Custer, T. N., Stiehl, C. M., & Lerman, D. C. (2021). Outcomes of a practical approach for improving conversation skills in adults with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis54(1), 309-333.

Reply 2

Hello, I agree the ABA approach is associated with positive and negative reinforcements. The ABA’s positive reinforcement techniques are helpful to children with autism. Positive reinforcement elicits a response, enabling a child to repeat a particular positive behaviour. Positive reinforcement is recommendable since it triggers positive actions and words, helping a child avoid undesired behaviors. Therefore, when applied appropriately, positive reinforcement enhances children’s social interaction, language, and self-care skills (da Silva et al., 2023)Applied Behavioral Analysis Therapy for Autism Discussion Paper.

Additionally, negative reinforcement is used to improve outcomes in children with autism. The therapist rewards good behaviors by reducing negative reinforcement if an autistic child demonstrates good behaviors. Consequently, children with autism repeat good behaviors to receive more rewards and recognition and eliminate negative reinforcement.

References

da Silva, A. P., Bezerra, I. M. P., Antunes, T. P. C., Cavalcanti, M. P. E., & de Abreu, L. C. (2023). Applied behavioral analysis for the skill performance of children with an autism spectrum disorder. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 14, 1093252.

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Reply 3

Hello, indeed, most students are eager to learn more about the ABA approach. Thus, reviewing the PowerPoint enhanced your understanding of how ABA therapy is used in managing autism symptoms in children. Al Sabi (2023) reported the efficacy of the ABA in improving symptoms of autism in padiatrics. In particular, children enrolled in the ABA program demonstrated superior communication skills. Therefore, caregivers and parents should be educated on enrolling their children in ABA therapy sessions to improve their communication and language skills.

References

Al Sabi, Y. N. (2023). The impact of an applied behavioral analysis-based training program on developing communicative skills among children with autism disorder. Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses, 17, 1–5. doi:10.3371/CSRP.MMWY.100125 Applied Behavioral Analysis Therapy for Autism Discussion Paper

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