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Evidence-Based Interventions For ADHD And ODD Assignment Discussion

Evidence-Based Interventions For ADHD And ODD Assignment Discussion

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Introduction

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) are two separate but coexisting psychological conditions that cause major social life impacts on children and adolescents (Eskander, 2020)Evidence-Based Interventions For ADHD And ODD Assignment Discussion. The two disorders often manifest with poor behavioral characteristics. It has been quite challenging for most medical practitioners to differentiate the two diseases, thus offering the wrong management. It is, however, important to understand the actual mental condition the child is suffering from when undertaking the patient’s treatment regimen.

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ADHD is a mental condition associated with disturbances of attentiveness, excessive activity, and impulse control. ADHD in children leads to unfocused concentration, evading instructions, and disorganized tendencies. Additionally, ADHD children often present with fidgeting and impatient characteristics when waiting for attendance (Seppä et al., 2023)Evidence-Based Interventions For ADHD And ODD Assignment Discussion. On the contrary, ODD in children is characterized by conduct that goes against the basic authority figures. Children with ODD disorders often show symptoms of arrogance and disobedience to their elders, parents, and teachers. ODD often results in arguments between children and adults, non-compliance with the rules, and intentional disturbances.

Though ADHD mainly reflects problems with concentration and self-control, ODD can be described as resistance to rules and laws. ADHD often presents with distractions and impulsive behaviors, which lead to the inability to complete an assigned task (Eskander, 2020)Evidence-Based Interventions For ADHD And ODD Assignment Discussion. However, ODD gives the tendency to resist authority, knowing the consequences. Secondly, ADHD is associated with neuroanatomical differences in the brain, causing poor regulation of personal attention and behavior. At the same time, ODD symptoms are linked to a mix of genetic and non-genetic factors like family dynamics or parental style. Although ADHD can be viewed as a neurodevelopmental disorder, ODD is diagnosed with disruptive behavior disorder.

In addition, the treatment methods for ADHD and ODD vary based on the difference in symptom presentations. Treatments for ADHD often involve behavioral interventions along with medications. Secondly, ADHD treatment consists of the help to maintain attention and impulse control of the affected child. ADHD symptoms are managed using stimulant drugs like methylphenidate. However, ODD treatment focuses on offering family therapy and parental training to help boost the child’s cognitive-behavioral skills, such as improving the child’s communication and conflict-resolution skills (Seppä et al., 2023)Evidence-Based Interventions For ADHD And ODD Assignment Discussion. ODD treatment does not consider drug use as a primary treatment. However, this can be used in cases of the presence of comorbid conditions such as ADHD and mood disorders.

ODD and ADHD often accompany each other. In regards to impulse control, children with ADHD are more likely to show a pattern of oppositional behavior due to frustration caused by their inability to learn and manage their patient needs from their close members. ODD patients do not pay attention to things around them, hence depriving themselves of the ability to notice mismanagement (Mayes et al., 2020).

Conclusion

ADHD and ODD are two separate psychological conditions with related disorders whose treatment calls for a proper assessment to obtain an accurate diagnosis. Fair patient assessment makes it easier to determine the patient’s clinical features, causes, and modes of the available treatment needed to correct the patient’s diagnosis. The need to clearly understand ADHA and ODD symptoms and diagnosis makes it easier for medical practitioners to offer a patient-based medical approach to overcome their behavioral problems.

References

Eskander, N. (2020). The psychosocial outcome of conduct and oppositional defiant disorder in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Cureus12(8).

Mayes, S. D., Castagna, P. J., DiGiovanni, C. D., & Waschbusch, D. A. (2020). Relationship between ADHD, oppositional defiant, conduct, and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder symptoms and age in children with ADHD and autism. International Journal of Clinical Psychiatry and Mental Health8(1), 47-57.

Seppä, S., Halt, A. H., Nordström, T., & Hurtig, T. (2023). Effects of Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) on Academic Performance and Educational Attainment. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 1-8. Evidence-Based Interventions For ADHD And ODD Assignment Discussion

Psychotherapeutic Options

The primary line of treatment for ADHD and ODD is behavioral therapy, such as Parent-Child Interaction Therapy and Behavioral Parent Training. Psychotherapeutic interventions are crucial. Enhancing parent-child interactions, communication, and disciplining techniques are the main goals of these therapies. For ODD, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) shows promise in assisting patients in recognizing and altering dysfunctional thought patterns and behaviors. Children with ODD may also benefit from social skills training, as it addresses interpersonal issues and enhances social relationships.

Psychopharmaceutical Management

Psychopharmacological treatments may be considered in some circumstances, primarily if symptoms considerably affect day-to-day functioning. Stimulant drugs such as amphetamines and methylphenidate are frequently recommended for ADHD. These drugs increase the brain’s neurotransmission activity, improving impulse control and focus. Alternatives to stimulants for those who do not have a good reaction to them or have unpleasant side effects include non-stimulant drugs like guanfacine and atomoxetine.

However, there are moral questions raised by the use of psychopharmacological therapies, particularly when it comes to children. Care needs to be taken to prevent overdiagnosis and overmedication. To guarantee the safe use of psychotropic drugs, healthcare practitioners, parents, and educators must work together, monitor patients regularly, and obtain informed permission. Evidence-Based Interventions For ADHD And ODD Assignment Discussion

Current Evidence

Recent studies like Nigg et al. (2020) on ODD and ADHD have demonstrated the efficacy of psychopharmacological and psychotherapy therapies. Liu et al. (2020) shed light on the variety of these illnesses, their emotional control, and inhibitory regulation. The significance of a dimensional viewpoint in diagnosis and individualized treatment planning is emphasized. It is essential to stay up to date on research published in the last three years to incorporate the most recent findings into treatment decisions.

Legal/Ethical Considerations

Legal and ethical considerations in the treatment of ADHD and ODD involve issues such as informed consent, confidentiality, and the rights of the child. In the case of minors, granting permission from the guardians or parents is essential before initiating any form of treatment. The principle for ethics of beneficence clinicians to prioritize the child’s well-being, balancing potential benefits and risks associated with interventions.

Navigating legal and ethical issues requires close cooperation with an interdisciplinary team. A coordinated approach to therapy is facilitated, and regular communication with educators, psychologists, and other healthcare specialists ensures a comprehensive awareness of the patient’s needs.

Interdisciplinary Team Collaboration

Working together as an interdisciplinary team is essential to managing ODD and ADHD effectively. Clinical professionals, educators, and parents can better customize interventions to meet each child’s needs by holding regular meetings and exchanging information (Bonham et al., 2021)Evidence-Based Interventions For ADHD And ODD Assignment Discussion. Teachers can offer insightful information about a child’s behavior and academic standing, which can help with therapy plans.

When considering medication, working with a psychiatrist or other prescribing healthcare provider is essential. Continuous communication makes it possible to monitor the effects of drugs, quickly address any potential adverse effects, and modify treatment plans as necessary.

Referral Process

There is a systematic process involved in the possible referral process for people with ODD and ADHD. Children who might benefit from additional assessment can be identified by working together with primary care physicians, mental health specialists, and schools. Referrals may be made in response to the findings of thorough assessments conducted with instruments such as the Connors Comprehensive Behavior Rating Scales or the Vanderbilt Assessment Scales.

Referrals to experts such as developmental pediatricians or child psychologists can be required for a more thorough evaluation. This procedure guarantees that each person receives a comprehensive assessment, which results in precise diagnosis and suitable intervention techniques Evidence-Based Interventions For ADHD And ODD Assignment Discussion.

To sum up, evidence-based treatments for ODD and ADHD take a multimodal strategy that includes both psychopharmacological and psychotherapy options. The necessity of a dimensional perspective is emphasized by current research, which also emphasizes customized treatment regimens based on the most recent data. Legal and ethical considerations guide responsible practice; complete and efficient patient care is facilitated by interdisciplinary collaboration and a systematic referral process.

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References

Nigg, J. T., Karalunas, S. L., Feczko, E., & Fair, D. A. (2020). Toward a revised nosology for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder heterogeneity. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging5(8), 726-737. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2451902220300483

Liu, L., Chen, W., Sun, L., Cheng, J., Su, Y., Rudaizky, D., … & Wang, Y. F. (2020). The characteristics and age effects of emotional lability in ADHD children with and without oppositional defiant disorder. Journal of Attention Disorders24(14), 2042-2053. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1087054717745594

Bonham, M. D., Shanley, D. C., Waters, A. M., & Elvin, O. M. (2021). Inhibitory control deficits in children with oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder compared to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology, 49, 39-62. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10802-020-00713-9 Evidence-Based Interventions For ADHD And ODD Assignment Discussion

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