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Pathophysiology Of Primary Diagnosis Of Stroke Assignment Paper

Pathophysiology Of Primary Diagnosis Of Stroke Assignment Paper

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Primary Diagnosis:  ­­­­­­­­­­Stroke

  1. Pathophysiology of stroke and   patient’s risk factors
Pathophysiology of Primary Diagnosis
Stroke is a sudden neurological outburst as a result of perfusion impairment via the blood vessels leading to the brain.  Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when blood vessels leak into the brain. On the other hand, ischemic stroke occurs due to blood and oxygen supplied to the brain is inadequate. Ischemic occlusions produce embolic and thrombotic conditions in the brain. In thrombosis, thinning of blood vessels due to atherosclerosis affects blood flow.   Plaque build-up ultimately leads to compression of the vascular chamber and the clots form, resulting in thrombotic stroke.  In embolic stroke, insufficient flow of blood to the brain causes the brain to be severely stressed and necrosis occurs.  In hemorrhagic stroke, stress in brain tissue causes breakage of blood vessels, generating toxic effects in the vascular system and subsequent infarction (Kuriakose & Xiao, 2020)Pathophysiology Of Primary Diagnosis Of Stroke Assignment Paper.

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Causes Risk Factors (genetic/ethnic/physical)
Stroke is caused by blocked blood vessels. When clots form in the brain, they interrupt the flow of blood, clog arteries, and cause breakage of blood flow, resulting in bleeding. When arteries that lead to the brain rupture during a stroke, the brain cells suddenly die due to a lack of oxygen (Kuriakose & Xiao,2020)Pathophysiology Of Primary Diagnosis Of Stroke Assignment Paper. Nonmodifiable risk factors for stroke are age, genetics, and ethnicity.  According to Kuriakose and Xiao, (2020), the risk of an individual suffering stroke heightens with age and doubles in both women and men 55 years and older.  Black and Hispanic populations are at a greater risk of stroke compared to Whites. A family or parental history of stroke increases the risk of a person developing stroke. Also, stroke might be among the numerous after-effects of several syndromes caused by mutation of genes like sickle cell anemia.

 

  1. Patient’s signs and symptoms, How does the diagnosis impact other body systems and possible complications?
Signs and Symptoms – Common presentation How does the diagnosis impact each body system?  Complications?
Common symptoms of stroke include sudden unilateral weakness, numbness, ataxia, speech disorder, headache, visual loss, and diplopia (Szelenberger et al., 2020). Stroke disrupts lower motor neuron pathway, leading to hemiplegia of the contralateral limb.  Also, neurological deficits cause structural alterations in skeletal muscle and the associated skeletal muscle atrophy that generates problems in movement(Qi et al., 2024)Pathophysiology Of Primary Diagnosis Of Stroke Assignment Paper.

 

  1. Other potential diagnosis that present in a similar way to this diagnosis (differentials)?
Medical conditions that present in the same way as stroke include metabolic disorders like hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, hyperthyroidism, uremia, hyponatremia, hypernatremia, hyperthyroidism, and metabolic encephalopathy. Also, physiological disorders, seizure, migraine, brain tumors, and demyelinating disease mimic might mimic stroke (Kathaami et al., 20200 Pathophysiology Of Primary Diagnosis Of Stroke Assignment Paper

 

  1. Diagnostic tests or labs rule out the differentials for the patient or confirm the primary diagnosis
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a diagnostic test used to confirm stroke. According to Tedyanto et al. (2022), MRI is a diagnostic test adequately sensitive and specific in detecting brain tissue abnormalities. Around eight percent of infarcts are detectable within twenty-four hours and ischemic stroke can be detected within a few hours of attack through MRI. MRI can distinguish brain tissue that at danger of infarction from irreparably damaged brain tissue.  MRI can detect brainstem infarcts and lacunar infarcts.

 

  1. Treatment options to consider
Antiplatelet therapy: is utilized for managing acute ischemic stroke and preventing the occurrence of stroke.  Antiplatelet drugs like ticagrelor, clopidogrel, and aspirin are the most commonly administered medications to stroke patients within the initial few days of stroke onset. Combination of aspirin and clopidogrel is most beneficial if administered within 24 hours and continued for four to twelve weeks (Kuriakose & Xiao, 2020)Pathophysiology Of Primary Diagnosis Of Stroke Assignment Paper.

Rehabilitation: Stroke can cause disabilities both in the short term and long term. This neurological condition usually affects daily living such as toileting and walking and also causes visual and sensorimotor impairment. Rehabilitation is intended to enable patients to function independently. Stroke rehabilitation involves occupational, cognitive, speech, and/ or physical therapy (Kuriakose & Xiao, 2020).

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References

Kathaami A. M., Alsaif, S. A., Bdah, B. A., Alhasson, M. A., Aldriweesh, M. A., Alluhidan, W. A., Amlutairi, F. M., Alotaibi, J. J., & Alskaini, M. A. (2020). Stroke mimics Clinical characteristics and outcome. Neurosciences, 25(1), 38-42. doi: 10.17712/nsj.2020.1.20190096

Kuriakose, D., & Xiao, Z. (2020). Pathophysiology and Treatment of Stroke: Present Status and Future Perspectives. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(20), 7609. doi: 10.3390/ijms21207609

Qi, H., Tian, D., Luan, F., Yang, R., & Zeng, N. (2024). Pathophysiological changes of muscle after ischemic stroke: a secondary consequence of stroke injury. Neural Regeneration Research, 19(4), 737-746,  DOI: 10.4103/1673-5374.382221

Szelenberger, R., Kostka, J., Saluk-Bijak, J., & Miller, E. (2020). Pharmacological Interventions and Rehabilitation Approach for Enhancing Brain Self-repair and Stroke Recovery. Current Neuropharmacology, 18(1), 51-64. doi: 10.2174/1570159X17666190726104139

Tedyanto, E., Tini, K., & Pramana, N.  (2022).  Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Ischemic Stroke. Cureus 14(7), e27224. doi:10.7759/cureus.27224 Pathophysiology Of Primary Diagnosis Of Stroke Assignment Paper

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