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Strategies to Prevent an Outbreak of Covid-19 Discussion Paper

Strategies to Prevent an Outbreak of Covid-19 Discussion Paper

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  1. Select/Identify a specific communicable disease outbreak that has occurred in your region.

I chose Coronavirus-Covid 19 as my communicable disease outbreak. Covid 19 was first reported in Wuhan, China. The earliest date of symptom onset was December 1, 2019. Symptoms included fever, malaise, dry cough, and dyspnea. Given the symptomology it was first thought to be pneumonia. After whole-genome sequencing was done, it was discovered to be a novel coronavirus. On February 12, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially named this infectious disease coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19). The virus evolved for four months and rapidly spread to other countries. On March 11, 2020, the WHO deemed this virus a pandemic. (NIH.gov,2020)

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  1. Description of a regional outbreak:

On March 1, 2020, Florida reported its first two cases of Covid-19. Also in March of 2020, there were cases of Covid reported in all CDC regions A-J. (Wikipedia, 2023). Strategies to Prevent an Outbreak of Covid-19 Discussion Paper

C1. Risk Factors and Determinants

Covid 19 is disseminated through droplets from an infected person. These droplets can be breathed in by others, they may also contaminate surfaces they touch, can land on their eyes, noses, or mouths. Even asymptomatic covid infected people can spread it for up to 10 days (about 1 and a half weeks). (CDC, 2020).

The elderly population are more at risk of developing menacing symptoms. Those that are 85 and older are at the highest risk. According to The Mayo Clinic, approximately 81% of deaths from Covid have been in people 65 and older and immunocompromised patients. Immunocompromised patients such as organ transplants and cancer treatment have a weakened immune system and need to take extra precautions. (Mayo Clinic, 2022). One epidemiological determinant would be economic status which had an important impact of Covid 19 attack rate, case death rate, and rate of convalescence. (MDPI, 2020)

  1. Community Impact

When Covid 19 hit our community here in Pensacola, Fl we went on lockdown. Only 1st our governor Ron Desantis issued an executive order to limit activities to 1st responders and essential services. Businesses could only have 50% capacity; our children were homeschooled, which was tough to adapt to being that both parents worked full-time as essential staff. The hospital I worked for also went on lockdown. There were specific points of entry, you had to answer a questionnaire, wear a mask, and get your temperature checked to go to work. There were no visitations allowed which was hard on the patients and families of the patients. We had swabbing areas set up in several locations for employees and the community. I remember thinking that this 1st wave of the Covid-19 pandemic was like a death sentence if you caught it. Luckily, I am the charge nurse in the recovery room and felt like it was the safer place of the hospital to be working at.  Strategies to Prevent an Outbreak of Covid-19 Discussion Paper We went to emergent cases only and the covid tests had to be read before the patient could go to surgery unless it was a trauma. Trauma cases were always treated as a potential covid patient, the procedure was done in a negative pressure O.R. room and then a recovery room nurse would recover the patient using contact/droplet precautions in the O.R. or the patient would be extubated in OR wait 20 minutes and then brought to PACU in a tent to a negative pressure room. Most of the recovery room staff came from ICU or ER backgrounds so we cross-trained to help the overwhelming influx of covid patients coming into our facility. At one point we even ran out of ventilators for patients, the ICU was completely full, and the hospital was at max capacity. I also would shower and change clothes/shoes prior to leaving the hospital in fear I would bring the virus home to the children, as their safety was my number one priority. As for local governments, if you could not be there via zoom or some other video call you could not be seen. Many businesses initiated curb side service or door delivery in order to stay open. However, a lot of small businesses went out of business due to the covid restrictions that were placed in our community.

D1. Comparison of a community outside of the US (United States) at a systems level

According to the University of Warwick prep work for Covid-19 to be done by leaders including “development of physical and social infrastructure, establishing monitoring and surveillance systems, emergency action plans, medical systems, and other capacities.” Effective leadership is necessary to respond to the immediate pandemic crisis. This involves many agencies collaborating to battle this outbreak. The government in the UK was slow to lockdown in comparison to Europe, the UK was a couple of weeks behind. The government was obsequious to Covid-19. Professor John Ashton, a leading Public Health expert, stated England’s Covid-19 response “pathetic…they’ve been doing it in a (non) smoke filled room and just dribbling out stuff.” The Prime Minister missed five cobra meetings which is the government’s main emergency committee. The government was pushing towards herd immunity. England also lacked supplies needed to test the population and PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) to protect the health care workers. High death rate was due to poor preparation, and blame-shaming when the pandemic first started. This in turn was still causing defensive stances and scape-goating amongst the leaders. The Government took a “centralised command-and-control approach.” The government worked against each other until the third lock down in the UK. This is when they started working with NHS and public health organizations to push the covid vaccine on to the citizens. 23.34 million of that population was vaccinated by 03/15/2021. The UK was slow to respond with weak efforts and disorganization but seemed to be coming out of the pandemic swifter than many other nations. But the diffuse leadership at the system level in England was insufficient. Strategies to Prevent an Outbreak of Covid-19 Discussion Paper

D2. Reporting procedure for the community amongst local levels to the CDC

In Escambia County, any laboratory that performed Covid-19 testing must report all results immediately to the Florida Department of Health. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services required daily laboratory reporting of Covid-19 test results to the Secretary of Health and Human Services. “The laboratory must send this data not only to the State Surgeon General but also to the county health department having jurisdiction over the area containing the office of the submitting practitioner or the patient’s residence. Such notice must occur for each positive test result.” (State of Florida Department of Health,2020)

D3. Two strategies to prevent an outbreak of Covid-19

There are numerous methods to suppress the spread of Covid-19. I would first recommend education about the transmission of the virus, the symptoms, social distancing, and mask wearing. This along with obtaining a covid vaccine will help slow the transmission of the Covid-19 virus. In December 2020, the Pfizer vaccine showed 95% efficacy. It is extremely important for everyone to follow the CDC guidelines as well as get vaccinated to help prevent another outbreak of Covid-19. (Yale Medicine, 2023)

A professional portfolio will showcase your knowledge and skills to prospective employers and will increase your marketability as a baccalaureate-prepared nurse. This portfolio will help you, as a nurse, hone in on the concepts, strengths, and critical-thinking abilities that define professional nursing practice. Throughout your time at WGU, you have developed skills and knowledge that distinguish your practice as that of a baccalaureate-prepared nurse. Items that display your skills and knowledge will be showcased in this professional portfolio. You should organize your portfolio around the four areas of professional nursing practice: quality and safety, advanced evidence-based practice, applied leadership, and community and population health. This portfolio will expand on the portfolio you already created in your Professional Roles and Values course. Strategies to Prevent an Outbreak of Covid-19 Discussion Paper
Your submission must be your original work. No more than a combined total of 30% of the submission and no more than a 10% match to any one individual source can be directly quoted or closely paraphrased from sources, even if cited correctly. An originality report is provided when you submit your task that can be used as a guide.

You must use the rubric to direct the creation of your submission because it provides detailed criteria that will be used to evaluate your work. Each requirement below may be evaluated by more than one rubric aspect. The rubric aspect titles may contain hyperlinks to relevant portions of the course.

 

A. Complete the following in your e-portfolio using the “E-Portfolio Template” in the weblink section:

1. Create a professional mission statement (suggested length of 1 paragraph) that includes the following:

• a representation of your career goals, your aspirations, and how you want to move forward with your career Strategies to Prevent an Outbreak of Covid-19 Discussion Paper

• an overview of where you would like to focus your time and energies within the profession

a. Reflect on how your professional mission statement will help guide you throughout your nursing career.

2. Complete a professional summary (suggested length of 3–4 pages) that includes the following:

a. Explain how the specific artifacts (examples of written work completed during this program) or completed work or both in your portfolio represent you as a learner and a healthcare professional.

b. Discuss how the specific artifacts (examples of written work completed during this program) in your portfolio represent your professional strengths.

c. Discuss challenges you encountered during the progression of your program.

i. Explain how you overcame these challenges.

d. Explain how your coursework helped you meet each of the nine nursing program outcomes.

 

Note: Refer to the attachment “Nursing Conceptual Model.”

 

e. Analyze how you fulfilled the following roles during your program:

• scientist

• detective

• manager of the healing environment

f. Discuss how you have grown professionally since the beginning of your program.

 

B. Complete the following within the section “Quality and Safety”:

1. Reflect (suggested length of 1 page) on your professional definition of quality and safety developed in Professional Roles and Values, including any necessary changes to your definition. Strategies to Prevent an Outbreak of Covid-19 Discussion Paper

a. Discuss how the program assisted you in developing your professional definition.

b. Identify the artifacts in your portfolio that support your definition.

i. Explain how these artifacts support your definition from part B1.

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2. Discuss the importance of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) certificate for your future role as a professional nurse.

 

C. Complete the following within the section “Evidence-Based Practice”:

1. Reflect (suggested length of 1 page) on your professional definition of evidence-based practice developed in Professional Roles and Values, including any necessary changes to your definition.

a. Discuss how the program assisted you in developing your professional definition.

b. Identify the artifacts in your portfolio that support your definition.

i. Explain how these artifacts support your definition from part C1.

 

Note: The artifacts should be included in your e-portfolio. Strategies to Prevent an Outbreak of Covid-19 Discussion Paper

 

2. Reflect (suggested length of 1 page) on your understanding of evidence-based practice and applied nursing research by doing the following:

a. Discuss how you are able to evaluate current primary research and apply the concepts to your nursing practice, considering the following:

• relevancy and believability of data

• differences between quality improvement and research (places and uses of each)

• differences between primary and secondary research and resources and the implications of each in clinical practice

b. Explain how your experience in the program helped you achieve excellence in evidence-based practice.

 

D. Complete the following within the section “Applied Leadership”:

1. Reflect (suggested length of 1 page) on your professional definition of applied leadership you developed in Professional Roles and Values, including any necessary changes to your definition.

a. Discuss how the program assisted you in developing your professional definition.

b. Identify the artifacts in your portfolio that support your definition.

i. Explain how these artifacts support the definition from part D1. Strategies to Prevent an Outbreak of Covid-19 Discussion Paper

 

Note: The artifacts should be included in your e-portfolio.

 

2. Summarize (suggested length of 1 paragraph to 1 page) your Learning Leadership Experience task by doing the following:

a. Discuss the importance of professional collaboration for effective nursing leadership.

 

E. Complete the following within the section “Community and Population Health”:

1. Reflect (suggested length of 1 page) on your professional definition of community and population health you developed in Professional Roles and Values, including any necessary changes to your definition.

a. Discuss how the program assisted you in developing your professional definition.

b. Identify the artifacts in your portfolio that support your definition.

i. Explain how these artifacts support the definition from part E1.

 

Note: The artifacts should be included in your e-portfolio.

 

2. Summarize (suggested length of 1 page) your Community and Population Health task by doing the following:

a. Discuss what you learned during your Community Health Nursing task.

b. Discuss what you learned that led to your community diagnosis. Strategies to Prevent an Outbreak of Covid-19 Discussion Paper

c. Discuss how your initial focus and diagnosis evolved after working with your population.

3. Discuss the importance of the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) certificate for your future role as a professional nurse.

 

F. Provide an appendix to your portfolio by including the following deliverables:

1. Include all the documents, prior assignments, and additional items that are examples of your best work to support your mastery of all sections given in parts B, C, D, and E.

2. Include the following materials:

• the attached “Nursing Conceptual Model”

• a link to the current IHI Course Catalog

3. Provide an updated professional résumé.

4. Provide professional references, using one of the following:

• a professional reference questionnaire

• a full letter of recommendation

• a list of four professional references with title and phone and/or email address

5. Include a copy of your IHI certificate of completion.

6. Include a copy of your AMNH certificate of completion. Strategies to Prevent an Outbreak of Covid-19 Discussion Paper

 

G. Acknowledge sources, using in-text citations and references, for content that is quoted, paraphrased, or summarized.

 

H. Demonstrate professional communication in the content and presentation of your submission. Strategies to Prevent an Outbreak of Covid-19 Discussion Paper

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