BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 2 Changes in Medical Education

BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 2 Changes in Medical Education

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BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 2 Changes in Medical Education

Student Name

Capella University

BHA-FPX4002 History of the United States Health Care System

Prof. Name



The realm of medical practice has experienced swift evolution, necessitating continuous adaptation and acquisition of requisite knowledge and skills by physicians to meet burgeoning expectations. This article aims to delineate the metamorphosis in medical education from the 1800s to contemporary times. Additionally, it will scrutinize the apprenticeship and academic models of medical training, comparing their progressions. Finally, it will evaluate the significance of understanding the history of medical education and its ramifications for present and future medical graduates.

The Evolving Landscape of Medical Education

Medicine has undergone dynamic shifts throughout its history, molding its present-day form. A pivotal aspect of this evolution lies in the transformation of medical education. In the United States, the first medical school was established by John Morgan in 1765, originally named the Philadelphia College of Medicine before being rebranded as the University of Pennsylvania (Slawson, 2012). During the 1800s, medical education predominantly entailed preceptors delivering lectures to students, lacking structured oversight (Slawson, 2012). Aspiring medical students during this era were mandated to fulfill specific criteria, including being at least 21 years old, undergoing two years of schooling, and completing three years of apprenticeship training (Slawson, 2012).

In contrast, contemporary medical education follows a markedly different trajectory. Aspiring medical students are required to attain a four-year bachelor’s degree, pass the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), and gain admission to an institution accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) (DeZee et al., 2012). Subsequently, students undergo intensive academic coursework followed by rigorous clinical residency apprenticeships, culminating in the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) (DeZee et al., 2012). Presently, aspiring doctors embark on an educational journey spanning eleven years post-secondary education, highlighting the rigorous and dynamic nature of modern medical training.

Apprenticeship versus Academic Models

The foundations of contemporary medical education are rooted in the apprenticeship and academic paradigms. Each model offers distinct avenues for professional development, fostering learning and advancement opportunities for prospective medical students. The apprenticeship model champions direct engagement in clinical settings, emphasizing hands-on learning to cultivate problem-solving skills and a profound understanding of medical challenges (Rassie, 2017). This approach, epitomized by figures like William Osler, underscores the value of bedside learning and early patient interaction (Swanson, 2012).

Conversely, the academic model prioritizes structured education, characterized by task-driven assessments and didactic learning (DeZee et al., 2012). The seminal Flexner Report of 1910 spearheaded reforms in medical education, advocating for rigorous curricula, practical laboratory work, and faculty involvement in research (Barzansky, 2010). Integration of both apprenticeship and academic models cultivates well-rounded physicians, combining theoretical knowledge with practical clinical skills, a hallmark of contemporary medical education.

Enhancing Medical Education through Historical Understanding

Revisiting the annals of medical history provides students with a comprehensive understanding of the origins of medical theory and the role of scientific advancements in shaping care practices. Exploring healthcare history enables the medical community to extract insights and avoid past mistakes. For instance, Florence Nightingale’s advocacy for surgical safety and hand hygiene standards in the 1800s underscores the significance of evidence-based practices in combating infections (Newsom, 2003).


The trajectory of medicine has been impelled by monumental advancements and a dedication to education. The amalgamation of apprenticeship and academic models in modern medical education underscores the importance of diverse learning approaches. By embracing the lessons of history, medical education continues to evolve, ensuring the cultivation of proficient and empathetic healthcare practitioners.

BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 2 Changes in Medical Education


Barzansky, B. (2010). Abraham Flexner and the Era of Medical Education Reform. Academic Medicine, 85(9), S19-S25.

Buja, L. M. (2019). Medical education today: All that glitters is not gold. BMC Medical Education, 19.

Caelleigh, A. (2002). Time to heal: American medical education from the turn of the century to the era of managed care. Education for Health, 15(1), 95-96.

DeZee, K. J., Artino, A. R., Elnicki, D. M., Hemmer, P. A., & Durning, S. J. (2012). Medical education in the United States of America. Medical Teacher, 34(7), 521–525.

Newsom, S. (2003). The history of infection control: Florence Nightingale part 1: 1820-1856. British Journal of Infection Control, 4(2), 22-25.

Rassie, K. (2017). The apprenticeship model of clinical medical education: Time for structural change. The New Zealand Medical Journal (Online), 130(1461), 66-72.

BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 2 Changes in Medical Education

Slawson, R. G. (2012). Medical Training in the United States Prior to the Civil War. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 17(1), 11–27.

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