Controversy Associated With Personality and Paraphilic Disorders Essay

Controversy Associated With Personality and Paraphilic Disorders Essay

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There are various types of personality disorders, such as antisocial personality disorder, which is marked by a constant disdain for or violation of other people’s rights. According to Boland et al. (2021), people who suffer from antisocial personality disorder experience difficulties complying with social standards and impulsivity and are continuously negligent. Because of how individuals with antisocialpersonality disorders think and see the world differently, managing them can be difficult. Because of this, the psychotherapist must treat individuals who have antisocial personality disorders with objectivity while setting up a welcoming environment, just like they would with any other client. This evaluation addresses the disputes concerning antisocial personality disorder, professional attitudes, tactics for preserving therapeutic interactions, and ethical and legal considerations in addressing the client. Controversy Associated With Personality and Paraphilic Disorders Essay

The Controversies Associated with Personality Disorder

Social stigmatization is a key point of contention in the treatment of clients with antisocial personality disorder. Furthermore, there are never-ending disagreements over whether antisocial personality disorder is a clinical or legal problem. For instance, can the damaging actions committed against other people, for instance, be excused as mental health conditions for which there is no need for legal action? Specialists also disagree when it comes to diagnosing antisocial personality disorders. Managing every case as needed could be difficult due to the lack of agreement on defining characteristics and antisocial personality disorder diagnosis. Furthermore, there is controversy surrounding the diagnosis of personality disorder and the rarity of treatment. Individuals with antisocial personality disorder frequently reject therapy, in contrast to those with other personality disorders (Nigel et al., 2019).


Professional Beliefs Concerning the Antisocial Personality Disorder

The professionals belief that people who suffer from antisocial personality disorder frequently break the law and turn into criminals. They could be violent or impulsive, lie, struggle with drug and alcohol abuse, and exhibit violent behavior (Attwood et al., 2021). They struggle to regularly fulfill obligations to their families, jobs, or studies. They also believe that individuals who suffer from antisocial personality disorder frequently manipulate, inflict cruel indifference, or intentionally provoke the anger or upset of others. They do not feel guilty or regret what they did. Controversy Associated With Personality and Paraphilic Disorders Essay

Professionals believe that antisocial personality disorder is a chronic illness. However, in certain individuals, some symptoms, especially criminal and destructive behavior, may go away with time. It’s unclear if this decline is due to other reasons, the effects of aging on their health and mind, or an increasing realization of the negative effects of antisocial behavior (Dunbar et al., 2019).

Professionals believe that individuals suffering from antisocial personality disorder are unlikely to look for healthcare assistance on their own. Thus, they suggest that if you have reason to believe that someone you know or love may be affected, you could politely advise them to get treatment from a mental health professional and offer to assist them in finding one (Olive, 2020). Controversy Associated With Personality and Paraphilic Disorders Essay

Strategies for Maintaining a Therapeutic Relationship

Beutler et al. (n.d.) assert that maintaining a therapeutic relationship that is beneficial is believed to be associated with general therapy outcomes, motivation for involvement, and hope for recovery. It may be especially important for people with PD diagnoses as the relationship can promote boundaries, lower psychological arousal, and increase cooperation. According to research, likability, trustworthiness, empathy, positive regard, and shared goals are all important in fostering a healthy therapeutic connection (Beutler et al., n.d.). However, because people with antisocial personality disorder might have trouble with interpersonal functioning, it can be challenging to sustain a constructive treatment connection with them. A positive relationship with the patient may also encourage a more person-centered care method that considers each person’s unique requirements, preferences, and values.

Ethical and Legal Considerations Associated with the Disorder

Mental health practitioners have difficult decisions about the diagnosis, treatment, and ethical considerations while dealing with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). ASPD is difficult to professionally diagnose and treat, and there is dispute surrounding whether ASPD is a mental or a legal-ethical problem (Fisher and Hany, 2019). Nevertheless, the three guiding ethical principles associated with ASPD are the concepts of justice, beneficence, and respect for human dignity. Controversy Associated With Personality and Paraphilic Disorders Essay

The principle of regard for human dignity divides moral obligations into two categories: the first is the duty to defend those whose autonomy has been diminished and the other is the duty to acknowledge autonomy. The danger and possibility of a potential benefit define the amount of protection to which an individual is entitled (Aerts et al., 2023). According to the principle of beneficence, persons are treated morally when they are kept safe from harm, have their decisions respected, and make every attempt to ensure their well-being. In addition, clinicians have an obligation to make sure that the patient has profited from their best choice. Additionally, the primary question that needs to be addressed in order to uphold the justice concept is who will bear the costs and rewards of the investigation. This idea calls for both implementing fairness of distribution and delivering what is earned. When some people gain while others are denied without a valid cause for the action, this is when injustice is most evident (Aerts et al., 2023). Controversy Associated With Personality and Paraphilic Disorders Essay


It might be difficult to treat patients with antisocial personality disorder; thus, the therapist needs to be very professional. Furthermore, there is ongoing debate over the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, which may lead to some cases going undiagnosed. But I think patients who start treatment early have a better chance of recovering.


Aerts, J. E. M., Rijckmans, M. J. N., Bogaerts, S., & van Dam, A. (2023). Establishing an optimal working relationship with patients with an antisocial personality disorder. Aspects and processes in the therapeutic alliance. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 96(4), 999-1014.

Attwood, J., Wilkinson-Tough, M., Lambe, S., & Draper, E. (2021). Improving attitudes towards personality disorder: is training for health and social care professionals effective?. Journal of Personality Disorders, 35(3), 409-S4. Controversy Associated With Personality and Paraphilic Disorders Essay

Beutler, L. E., Castonguay, L. G., & Constantino, M. A brief review of progress in its first year. Psychotherapy Section, 54.

Boland, R., Verdiun, M., & Ruiz, P. (2021). Kaplan & Sadock’s synopsis of psychiatry. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Dunbar Jr, E. T., Sias, S. M., Leierer, S., Atherton, W. L., Campbell, R. J., & Goodwin Jr, L. R. (2019). Mental Health Professionals’ Attitudes toward Clients with Antisocial Personality Disorder: An Exploratory Study. Journal of Counselor Preparation and Supervision, 12(3), 4.

Fisher, K. A., & Hany, M. (2019). Antisocial personality disorder.

Nigel, S. M., Streb, J., Leichauer, K., Hennig, B., Otte, S., Franke, I., … & Dudeck, M. (2019). The role of psychopathic personality traits in current psychological and physiological subclinical stress levels of forensic inpatients: a path analysis. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 18(2), 164-177.

Olive, N. (2020). Psychologists’ attitudes towards personality disorder. The University of Manchester (United Kingdom). Controversy Associated With Personality and Paraphilic Disorders Essay




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