Defining Disaster

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Defining Disaster

Defining Disaster

Order ID 53003233773
Type Essay
Writer Level Masters
Style APA
Sources/References 4
Perfect Number of Pages to Order 5-10 Pages
Description/Paper Instructions

Defining Disaster

Photo by Donna Hastings

water supplies, housing and weather exposure, and injuries. Healthcare facilities may be severely structurally damaged or destroyed. Facilities with little or no structural damage may be rendered unusable or only partially usable because of a lack of utilities, losses of staff and equipment, limited resupply, and/or disruption of communication and transportation systems. Facilities remaining in operation face massive numbers of ill, injured, and/or stressed and disoriented victims.

Even in disasters with relatively few fatalities or injuries, disruptions of food supply, utilities, waste management, transportation, social, and educational services, together with property damage and survivor relocation often place intense demands on health services. Clearly, a timely and effective health care response is critical to the survivors’ and the community’s safety and recovery – and mental health care is an essential component in this response to disaster.

Young, Ford, Ruzek, Friedman & Gusman National Center for PTSD

  • In 1996-97, one hundred eighteen Presidential-declared disasters and eight national emergencies occurred in the United States, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provided funding to 553,835 disaster victims. FEMA
  • From 1984-1994, 285 Presidential-declared disasters occurred in the United States, one every two weeks on average. National Disaster Medical System Tenth Anniversary: A state by state guide (1994).
  • Approximately 17 million people living in North America are exposed annually to trauma and disaster. Meichenbaum (1995).
  • Approximately 25-30% of individuals exposed to unusually traumatic events such as disasters, combat, violence, and accidents develop chronic PTSD or other psychiatric disorders. Yehuda et al. (1994).

This guidebook is an introduction to the field of disaster mental health (DMH) for clinicians and administrators. Practical guidelines and background information are provided to assist you and/or your organization in developing the following:

  • Disaster Mental Health Response Strategies

Providing timely and phase-appropriate mental health services to disaster survivors, families, workers, and organizations.

We focus in detail on the pragmatics of delivering DMH services at disaster sites and over the long term in affected communities. Our goal is to help you provide a continuum of care for recovering survivors and their communities over the course of the days, months, and years following the disaster.

  • Disaster Mental Health Team Formation and Maintenance

Establishing a disaster mental health policy and team with operational protocols for timely and effective disaster mental health response and for team training and preparation.

Providing disaster mental health services is complex. We strongly advise developing a policy and a team before disaster strikes your community. Organizational policy must necessarily address the team’s role during local or national emergencies/disasters, and outline how the team can become an integral element in the local and national response system.


Content (worth a maximum of 50% of the total points) Zero points:  Student failed to submit the final paper. 20 points out of 50:  The essay illustrates poor understanding of the relevant material by failing to address or incorrectly addressing the relevant content; failing to identify or inaccurately explaining/defining key concepts/ideas; ignoring or incorrectly explaining key points/claims and the reasoning behind them; and/or incorrectly or inappropriately using terminology; and elements of the response are lacking. 30 points out of 50:  The essay illustrates a rudimentary understanding of the relevant material by mentioning but not full explaining the relevant content; identifying some of the key concepts/ideas though failing to fully or accurately explain many of them; using terminology, though sometimes inaccurately or inappropriately; and/or incorporating some key claims/points but failing to explain the reasoning behind them or doing so inaccurately.  Elements of the required response may also be lacking. 40 points out of 50:  The essay illustrates solid understanding of the relevant material by correctly addressing most of the relevant content; identifying and explaining most of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology; explaining the reasoning behind most of the key points/claims; and/or where necessary or useful, substantiating some points with accurate examples.  The answer is complete. 50 points:  The essay illustrates exemplary understanding of the relevant material by thoroughly and correctly addressing the relevant content; identifying and explaining all of the key concepts/ideas; using correct terminology explaining the reasoning behind key points/claims and substantiating, as necessary/useful, points with several accurate and illuminating examples.  No aspects of the required answer are missing.
Use of Sources (worth a maximum of 20% of the total points). Zero points:  Student failed to include citations and/or references. Or the student failed to submit a final paper. 5 out 20 points:  Sources are seldom cited to support statements and/or format of citations are not recognizable as APA 6th Edition format. There are major errors in the formation of the references and citations. And/or there is a major reliance on highly questionable. The Student fails to provide an adequate synthesis of research collected for the paper. 10 out 20 points:  References to scholarly sources are occasionally given; many statements seem unsubstantiated.  Frequent errors in APA 6th Edition format, leaving the reader confused about the source of the information. There are significant errors of the formation in the references and citations. And/or there is a significant use of highly questionable sources. 15 out 20 points:  Credible Scholarly sources are used effectively support claims and are, for the most part, clear and fairly represented.  APA 6th Edition is used with only a few minor errors.  There are minor errors in reference and/or citations. And/or there is some use of questionable sources. 20 points:  Credible scholarly sources are used to give compelling evidence to support claims and are clearly and fairly represented.  APA 6th Edition format is used accurately and consistently. The student uses above the maximum required references in the development of the assignment.
Grammar (worth maximum of 20% of total points) Zero points:  Student failed to submit the final paper. 5 points out of 20:  The paper does not communicate ideas/points clearly due to inappropriate use of terminology and vague language; thoughts and sentences are disjointed or incomprehensible; organization lacking; and/or numerous grammatical, spelling/punctuation errors  10 points out 20:  The paper is often unclear and difficult to follow due to some inappropriate terminology and/or vague language; ideas may be fragmented, wandering and/or repetitive; poor organization; and/or some grammatical, spelling, punctuation errors 15 points out of 20:  The paper is mostly clear as a result of appropriate use of terminology and minimal vagueness; no tangents and no repetition; fairly good organization; almost perfect grammar, spelling, punctuation, and word usage. 20 points:  The paper is clear, concise, and a pleasure to read as a result of appropriate and precise use of terminology; total coherence of thoughts and presentation and logical organization; and the essay is error free.
Structure of the Paper (worth 10% of total points) Zero points:  Student failed to submit the final paper. 3 points out of 10: Student needs to develop better formatting skills. The paper omits significant structural elements required for and APA 6th edition paper. Formatting of the paper has major flaws. The paper does not conform to APA 6th edition requirements whatsoever. 5 points out of 10: Appearance of final paper demonstrates the student’s limited ability to format the paper. There are significant errors in formatting and/or the total omission of major components of an APA 6th edition paper. They can include the omission of the cover page, abstract, and page numbers. Additionally the page has major formatting issues with spacing or paragraph formation. Font size might not conform to size requirements.  The student also significantly writes too large or too short of and paper 7 points out of 10: Research paper presents an above-average use of formatting skills. The paper has slight errors within the paper. This can include small errors or omissions with the cover page, abstract, page number, and headers. There could be also slight formatting issues with the document spacing or the font Additionally the paper might slightly exceed or undershoot the specific number of required written pages for the assignment. 10 points: Student provides a high-caliber, formatted paper. This includes an APA 6th edition cover page, abstract, page number, headers and is double spaced in 12’ Times Roman Font. Additionally, the paper conforms to the specific number of required written pages and neither goes over or under the specified length of the paper.


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