Impact Of Social Media On Mental Health

Impact Of Social Media On Mental Health
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The evolution of social media in the twenty-first century has significantly transformed the mode of communication and interaction among individuals in society. The phenomenal development has also revolutionized how individuals create their identities and share different kinds of information. The impact of social media has extremely affected youth between sixteen and twenty-five years, compared to senior adults beyond twenty-five years of age (Keum et al. 2023). Besides, young adults have embraced social media platforms as the central point for self-expression and socialization with friends, relatives, and other individuals in society. It is worth noting that young adults are experiencing significant challenges in managing the pressures and influences attributed to early adulthood and adolescence (Curran et al. 2023). The connections between mental health and social media have evolved as a significant area of research. The current dissertation explores the philosophical and theological aspects of the relevant discourse, examining the wider context of the phenomenon to identify the strategies for enhancing the well-being of young adults.

1.1 Background Context (Theological/Philosophical Perspective)

The relations between theology and social media have generated a significant discourse in contemporary society, particularly concerning the influence of social media platforms among individuals and how it relates to divine principles (Cohen et al. 2023). Research indicates that the increased dependence on modes of communication supported by technological platforms has varied spiritual implications for humanity. Individuals have significantly relied on social media for interaction and socialization (Popat and Tarrant 2023). This situation could separate them from human relations, deter them from meditation and moments of contemplation, and create spiritual isolation among individuals.

Technological changes have severe implications in society, mainly because they impact the comprehension of the human experience and sacred principles. The existing studies provide an appropriate approach for interpreting and understanding the philosophical aspects of the interaction among individuals on social media and how it impacts their mental health (Sujarwoto et al. 2023). Social media platforms have created unique identities among individuals and exposed users to diverse experiences that could not be realized in other modes of communication. The current dissertation aims to evaluate both the theological and philosophical perspectives, especially on the role of social media platforms on the mental health of individuals aged between sixteen and twenty-five years.

1.2 Rationale

In the current study, the researcher aims to explore the influence of digital media on mental health because the phenomenon has a significant role in shaping the understanding, beliefs, and values among individuals in contemporary society. By exploring the relations between social media, philosophy, and theology, the current dissertation aims to divulge the implications and hidden meaning entrenched in the communications among individuals on social media. Moreover, the investigator seeks to provide diverse perspectives concerning the subject under investigation and appropriate findings that would guide investigators, scholars, experts, and other stakeholders to understand the phenomenal issue.

1.3 Aim and Objectives

1.3.1 Aims

To explore and understand how interactions in social media influence the mental health among young adults in society

1.3.2 Objectives

  1. To evaluate the theological perspectives in society concerning the impact of digital media communications among individuals in society
  2. To examine the philosophical context that provides insights into the nature and scope of digital interaction on the relations among humanity and the identities of users
  3. To present appropriate findings that would inform future policies and practices on how social media platforms impact the mental health of young adults.


Systematic search methods are instrumental in nursing because they facilitate an elaborate evaluation of evidence on the subject under investigation (Aveyard 2023). A literature review is critical writing that allows the investigator to conduct a comprehensive examination and deliver summarized evidence concerning the phenomenon under investigation (Holloway and Galvin 2023). Literature reviews are critical because they facilitate in providing appropriate responses and solutions, especially after an extensive exploration of empirical evidence, and provide summarized information that would guide healthcare practitioners, researchers, experts, and other stakeholders on the best practices and substantive approach for developing the decision-making processes in healthcare practice (Sinnayah et al. 2023). The inclusion of evidence-based practices within the nursing profession has been of great importance in the recent era, promoting the development of literature reviews that provide appropriate findings relevant to the current needs in social care and healthcare practices (Wolotira 2023).

During the study, the investigator embraced the PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcome) framework to develop an appropriate research question for the project (Reid and Martin, 2023). The approach is a popular model researchers use because it facilitates creating research questions (Plotas et al. 2023). Even though Norling et al. (2023) explain that the PICO model is not practical in developing research questions because of limited scholarly work on instances where the model was applied for developing an appropriate clinical question, Aveyard (2023) reiterates that formulation of the refined research question is imperative for literature reviews, recommending the PICO framework for its effectiveness in developing the appropriate question for literature reviews. The PICO model exhibits a sense of focus and balance in research questions.

PICO Framework Keywords for Research Question
Population Young Adults aged between 16 and 25 years
Intervention Social Media Usage
Comparison/ Context Philosophical and Theological perspectives
Outcome  Social media influences on Mental health.


The investigator embraced the online bibliographic electronic searching database EBSCOHost to conduct the literature search on the relevant subject. The platform allowed the investigator to obtain appropriate findings from CINAHL Plus and MEDLINE. Academic Search Premier, the GOOGLE SCHOLAR search engine, and other databases related to health sciences were also used during the search process. The search process was designed to select articles published within ten years, particularly between 2013 and 2023.

Keywords Number of Articles on Initial Hit
Young Adults 494,220
Social Media 318132
Mental Health 33,465
Total 845,817


The researcher also employed the Boolean operators, including “AND” and “NOT,” during the investigations to facilitate refining the search process (Aveyard, 2023) (See Appendix A). The method, especially in using “AND,” was instrumental in minimizing the number of hits and enhancing the process’s effectiveness and efficiency. However, the operator “NOT” enabled the investigator to exclude the terms irrelevant to the search process. The investigator used the terms social media, mental health, and young adults, as well as the primary search string. Notably, the terms senior adults, physical fitness, and mainstream media were excluded from the search process (See Appendix B).

Keywords combined with Boolean logical operators Hits of Articles
*Young adults* AND *Social media* AND *Mental health* 331
With NOT *Senior adults* NOT *Mainstream media* NOT *Physical health* 214


Among 214 articles that had been returned, the investigator excluded articles published in English and related to secondary studies (systematic review). The final papers retrieved by the investigator were 129. Subsequently, the researcher selected 63 articles from primary sources using the manual review approach. The selected articles were drawn from sources relevant to the topic under investigation, including articles whose abstracts reflected the chosen exclusion criteria embraced by the study (physical health, senior adults, and mainstream media). The investigator applied the snowballing comprehensive research approach to select nine more articles (The relevant strategy is usually used in determining an in-text reference list from scholarly articles chosen in advance) out of the 63 primary articles (Aveyard 2023). Subsequently, the researcher minimized the 68 pieces to 42. The criteria used for the reduction of articles was the identification of sources that had been duplicated and articles that did not focus on mental health and social media (the articles excluded focused either on physical health among individuals or other media other than social media, e.g., print, visual and audio). The remaining six articles were included in the project because of their relevance to the phenomenon under investigation and the research problem (See Appendix C).

The investigator used a “Research and Critical Appraisal Tool” that had been tailor-made for the project to evaluate the applicability, reliability, and validity of the articles to minimize biases and enhance their dependability (Aveyard 2023) (See Appendix D) two out of the nine selected articles had been drawn from primary sources with cross-sectional online surveys and quantitative survey methods. Though the rest of the articles contained quantitative data, they were mainly drawn from secondary sources, including cross-sectional studies and quantitative surveys. Critical appraisal tool is a significant instrument that facilitates investigators in evaluating the quality of the evidence obtained from relevant articles. Additionally, six articles were from the UK (See Appendix E).


The investigator conducted a thematic analysis, facilitating the creation of three substantive themes adopted into the dissertation (Aveyard 2023) (See Appendix F). The selected themes included psychological distress and cyberbullying, the correlation between social media and mental health, and the impact of social comparison and body change.

3.1 Theme 1: Correlation Between Social Media and Mental Health

Dodemaide et al. (2022) investigate the influence of social media on young people’s mental health and wellbeing, concentrating on the qualitative elements of their experiences. The study intends to address a critical gap in the current literature by investigating the lived experiences of young adult social media users, considering both perceived dangers and advantages. The authors discuss young adults’” increased social media use and its mental health effects. While earlier research has recognized the hazards connected with vulnerable groups utilizing social media, there has been a striking lack of studies that address the varied experiences of young people in this environment. Dodemaide et al. (2022) attempt to overcome this gap by qualitatively analyzing the results of an online poll using inductive thematic content analysis.

The fundamental goal of this research is to highlight the various viewpoints of young adult social media users. The authors use thematic content analysis to uncover the complexities of how young adults use social media, such as their desires for anonymity and differing assessments of various sites as beneficial or detrimental. By delving into these elements, the study contributes to a better phenomenological understanding of the complex interaction between young people and social media. The potential for this study to enhance the area of social work and associated disciplines emphasizes its significance. Social workers frequently wrestle with the ethical and educational implications of adopting social media into clinical practice.

Moreover, this study provides clinicians with significant information regarding their clients” digital experiences, allowing them to appropriately respond to obstacles or inquiries about social media usage. Furthermore, the study’s qualitative aspect adds to the evidence base by providing a nuanced viewpoint that complements prior quantitative research. To summarize, the research of Dodemaide et al. (2022) adds significantly to our understanding of the influence of social media on young adult mental health. Additionally, the study expands the data foundation for social work and allied fields by qualitatively investigating the experiences of social media users, creating a more thorough understanding of the complex interplay between young people and social media.

The study by Koronczai and Demetrovics (2022) examines the relationship between juvenile and teenage psychological health and social media use. Essentially, the introduction briefly outlines the established connections between inappropriate social media usage, particular visual platform activities (such as picture manipulation and celebrity following), and psychological consequences, including depressive disorders, self-esteem issues, and body dissatisfaction. Moreover, the research’s theoretical framework, which provides a prism through which to analyze such connections, is based on the ideas of social contrast and self-objectification (Koronczai & Demetrovics 2022). The study aims to test theory-oriented propositions on the relationship between discontent with one’s body and visual social media usage, especially when taking gender differences in adolescence and young adulthood into account.

Using a methodologically sound technique, the authors conducted three convenience-sampled surveys among Hungarian university students and Israeli teenagers, who are also high school students. The demographic information included for every survey cohort aids in placing the results in perspective. The study’s findings provide light on several mediating variables in the interactions being examined (Koronczai and Demetrovics, 2022). Body shame, along with harmful social media usage, appears to be mediated by Hungarian university students’” propensity to alter their views of themselves on social networking sites, especially the regularity of picture alterations and the use of filters. Additionally, the relationship between self-related negative feelings and attitudes (including low self-worth and inefficiency) with inappropriate use of social media is found to be mediated by peer assessment of physical appearance.

The study finds that amongst high school students, especially among guys, technologically driven social comparison is a mediating factor in the relationship between the inappropriate usage of Instagram and muscle monitoring (Koronczai and Demetrovics 2022). The study highlights the impact of physical appearance compared to others as a moderator among dissatisfaction with one’s body and the regularity of following superstars in the instance of Israeli teenagers, highlighting gender-specific differences. In summary, the research conducted by Koronczai and Demetrovics (2022) adds much to the field by illuminating the complex relationships between young adults and teenagers” usage of visual social media content and mental health. The results highlight the possible harm caused by peer pressure along with exposure to socially perceived beauty standards while using graphical social media content, providing vital information on the unhealthy coping strategies that might lead to inappropriate social media usage.

The qualitative analysis of young people’s interactions with social networking sites and their effects on their psychological wellbeing and mental health is the main emphasis of Dodemaide et al.’s (2020) study. The study explores the moral and pedagogical ramifications of social networking site use in clinical settings, an area in which the field of social work has been cautious. The research under consideration acknowledges the widespread use of social networking sites as a means for people to exchange ideas, relate personal stories, and get emotional and social support. Dodemaide et al. (2020) use inductive thematic content analysis to explain their findings, revealing the complex viewpoints of young people on social media. The survey indicates Different perspectives, such as a need for anonymity, a range of social media applications, and assessments of particular platforms as beneficial or detrimental.

This qualitative investigation closes a literature gap by analyzing perceived hazards and advantages. It provides a more thorough insight into the everyday lives of young adults who use social media. Additionally, the study enhances our phenomenology knowledge of young people’s social media usage and substantially contributes to the information supporting clinical work and related fields. The study contributes to a larger investigation of social media’s effects on young people’s mental health, specifically focusing on the intricate nature of the utilization of social media within the target group (16–25 years old). Numerous references to Dodemaide et al. (2020) attest to the strength and applicability of their findings in guiding our current investigation.

The academic project from O’Dair (2020) examines how the internet affects teenagers” psychological wellbeing, particularly regarding the “Gen Z” generation. Furthermore, published in a period with heightened global concern for youth mental health, this research addresses the surge in information gathered by the World Health Organization, which suggests that 1 in 7 adolescents are probably experiencing emotional issues (O’Dair 2020). Given that 70% of kids around the onset of 12 and 15 reportedly possess an online persona, O’Dair (2020) delves into the intricate mechanisms underlying their societal influence (O’Dair 2020). This initiative aims to increase the knowledge of how various forms of digital media affect the lives of adolescents through a comprehensive analysis of previous research. O’Dair (2020) highlights the need for additional research, noting inconclusive results.

Examining literature from the past five years, O’Dair’s (2020) summary of findings reveals potential harms associated with social media use, including impacts on sleep, self-esteem, and body image. The study suggests a connection between increased social media exposure and negative mental health outcomes, yet also acknowledges potential benefits, such as reducing social isolation and providing a platform for expressing distress (O’Dair 2020). O’Dair underscores the limitations of current studies, emphasizing the challenge of distinguishing between online and offline behaviors. The conclusion calls for further research, a nuanced understanding of social media risks, and the formulation of guidelines to ensure safe and moderated use. The 2020 academic project from O’Dair (2020) examines how the internet affects teenagers” psychological wellbeing, particularly in the “Gen Z” generation. The research was written despite an environment of increased worldwide anxiety about the psychological wellbeing of young people. The study discusses the rise that the World Health Organization observed, indicating around 1 in 7 teenagers may be suffering from an emotional disorder (O’Dair 2020). Given that 70% of kids around the onset of 12 and 15 reportedly possess an online persona, O’Dair (2020) delves into the intricate mechanisms underlying their societal influence (O’Dair 2020). The project aims to improve our grasp of how teenage online platforms impact wellbeing by thoroughly evaluating past studies.

Thames News (2023) conducted a cross-sectional study to establish the influence of online media platforms on the mental health of UK adolescents. The author reiterates that mental illness has been identified as a primary concern by healthcare practitioners, experts, governments, and other stakeholders, necessitating the need to identify the relevant causes of the problem in contemporary society and initiate appropriate mechanisms to eradicate or mitigate the issue.

Generally, the prevalence of mental illness among young adults in the current era is attributed to diverse factors (Thames News 2023). Because ninety-seven percent of young adults engage in at least one of the digital media platforms, the relevant mode of communication can be identified as the significant cause of stress and depression among adolescents, influencing their healthcare status, particularly the prevalence of mental health problems. Future studies should be conducted by comparing the correlation between the mental health of adolescents who use social media and those who don’t engage on the relevant platforms. There is a significant correlation between the presence of anxiety and depression among young adults and the usage of social media platforms (Thames News 2023). However, few longitudinal studies that have been conducted using mediation analysis and representative data have been inclined toward the understanding of the phenomenal correlation between social media usage and the prevalence of mental health conditions among young adults. Even though most studies have employed distinct parameters in gauging the impact of online media usage on the mental health of individuals in society, some investigators have reported limited connections between the use of social media for a longer time and the prevalence of mental health problems among the relevant users.

A study conducted in 2023 by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) explores the effects of social networking sites on the psychological wellbeing of teenagers in the United Kingdom. Dr Ruth Plackett leads it from UCL. The study discusses the rise that the World Health Organization recorded in 2021, showing that 1 in 7 teenagers may have a mental problem within a background of increasing concern over juvenile mental health (NIHR 2023). The study becomes more important in light of the many variables affecting mental illnesses in the wake of the COVID-19 epidemic. The study, which uses a longitudinal methodology and focuses on teenagers between 12 and 15, seeks to identify the causal relationships between social media usage and psychological wellness (NIHR 2023). The research, sponsored by ARC North Thames and supported by the NIHR’s Mental Health program, questions earlier cross-sectional results.

That is, by showing that greater usage of social media does not cause mental health issues in and of itself. Rather, this association is heavily influenced by race, involvement in the study year, and beginning mental health. Dr. Plackett highlights how the study is consistent with other long-term studies and points to the scant evidence suggesting a direct relationship between teenage wellbeing and social media use (NIHR 2023). The ramifications of the research go beyond academics; physicians, parents, caregivers, legislators, and young people are all urged to reevaluate their strategies. Notably, the study highlights the need to acknowledge the possible benefits of social media use in adolescents” lives and suggests that treatments focused only on social networking site use may not improve adolescents” psychological wellbeing.

The significant effects of the internet on youth psychological wellbeing are examined by Cramer and Inkster (2017). The writers examine how the internet has impacted those dubbed “digital natives,” whereby sites like Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter are essential to the daily activities of nearly everyone worldwide. Although the internet presents chances for imaginative thinking, including studying, this research concentrates on new data increasing worries regarding possible effects on mental wellness among young people. Notably, social media addiction, affecting approximately 5% of young people, is discussed, with comparisons drawn to the addictive nature of cigarettes and alcohol (Cramer and Inkster 2017).

The research addresses the societal concern surrounding social media’s role in a potential mental health crisis, a topic debated by MPs in Parliament. By examining the rapid rise in usual web surfing (that transpired from 35% in 2006 to 82% in 2016) and the increase in overall social media use (that occurred from 22% in 2007 to 89% in 2016), the study sheds light on the widespread use of these websites within people of all ages compared with older people. Owing to this temporal disparity, 91% of individuals under 16 and 24 use the web for communication, raising concerns about the potential influence of these platforms on a child’s emotions (Cramer and Inkster 2017). The research is important because it increases awareness of the complex interaction among teenage behavioral issues or internet use.

Theme 2: Psychological Distress and Cyberbullying

The evolution of social media platforms in the 21st century has been identified as the primary contributor to cyberbullying and psychological distress among adolescents in society. Psychological distress among young adults has been attributed to several suicidal cases in the recent era. Electronic harassment, therefore, impacts negatively on the wellbeing and mental health of young adults, causing anxiety and depression. According to O’Dair (2020), social media use has immense negative effects on young adults, contributing to the prevalence of depression and stress. Frequent use of social media causes problems in body image, lower self-esteem, and sleep disturbances among young adults. The latter effects of social media networks are likely to generate mental health complications among individuals in society. Notably, teenagers in the current era have significantly invested their emotions in digital network platforms. This group usually feels isolated, disconnected, and distressed whenever they cannot access the events and activities that transpire within the social networks (Koronczai and Demetrovics 2022). The phenomenal issues can be identified as another significant problem in the mental health conditions of this group, associated with their incapability of accessing social networks. Similarly, the increased exposure of the adolescent population to social media networks influences them to remain on screen through the day and night, affecting not only their sleep quality but also causing depression, anxiety, and negative self-esteem.

Petropoulos Petalas et al. (2021) report that consistent exposure to screens among adolescents contributes to mood disorders and adverse effects on their overall behavior in society. Even though some authors acknowledge the positive impacts of social media on the emotions of young adults, particularly among individuals with communication distress, the adverse effects of social media use exceed its positive outcomes among adolescents. RSPH (2017) argues that individuals with mental health problems can share their predicaments within social networks and enjoy access to experts, therapists, and individuals with knowledge and experiences similar to the challenges they face. Additionally, this can promote intensive interaction, causing recovery and healing among vulnerable individuals. Studies indicate that the images accessed by users of social media networks are the likely cause of self-harm and eating disorders.

Hardy and Castonguay (2018) suggest that policymakers and healthcare experts should initiate appropriate strategies that would ensure the provision of educational programs to social media users, particularly among young adults, to facilitate responsible access to digital networks and provide a form of recovery and therapy among vulnerable populations. Notably, statistics reveal a substantial decline in overall substance abuse, teenage pregnancy, violence, and smoking among adolescents since the evolution of social media platforms (O’Dair 2020). Even though the majority of academic literature concerning the impact of social media use on the wellness and mental health of teenagers provides a negative effect on the same, there is significant evidence that delivers a favorable report on the use of social media, primarily on its impacts on the wellbeing of individuals in society. However, spending most of the time on social media causes sleep disorders, anxiety, and depression, affecting the wellbeing of the users. Cyberbullying has been attributed to major problems among youths, including the development of suicidal thoughts and adverse effects on the self-esteem and body image of teenagers.

The evolution of social media networks has generated significant benefits for users that contribute to financial gains and a positive social reputation. Therefore, teenagers who use digital network platforms strive to change their behavior and body image to obtain more likes from users and gain substantive social standing and financial returns. Scott et al. (2020) explain that teenagers can scroll through photos on Facebook and Instagram to access more pictures while comparing their lifestyles and appearances. Their failure to match with their peers and colleagues displayed on the digital networks contributes to lower moods and self-esteem, a factor that could generate suicidal thoughts. Besides, some teenagers may attempt to change their body images to measure up with their peers and friends on the platforms (Koronczai and Demetrovics 2022). Additionally, social media platforms are significant for increased interactions and communications among youths. Digital networks have contributed to minimizing loneliness among teenagers, influencing the users to engage on essential topics and subjects of great concern to the public related to politics.

Kwan et al.’s (2020) systematic mapping review reveals the far-reaching impact that cyberbullying has on kids’ and adolescents’ psychological health. Cyberbullying should be considered a public health issue of enormous concern. This study, conducted within the UK, systematically searched for 19 systematic reviews, which mostly focused on identifying that cyberbullying has a negative influence on mental health outcomes in this particular population. The advent of the internet-savvy generation, a recent trend by Kwan et al. (2020), further underlines growing anxieties stemming from negative online activity. Cyberbullying, in particular, has been most commonly found on social media platforms where users have created identities for themselves that are not linked back to their real lives or established networks; as a result, it is completely anonymous. There are also vast implications to the findings of Kwan et al. (2020) when applied systematically, and they bear on the question of how social media exacerbates and contaminates the thoughts young adults aged 16 to 25 have about depression and suicidal death in their own lives based on news reports concerning such deaths outside themselves. With the proliferation of social media usage among this age group, Kwan et al.’s study is an essential touchstone.

The complex mix of these interactions on social networking sites needs to be explored further. It means looking at the particular problems this digital environment presents, considering Kwan et al.’s (2020) conscientious review. Furthermore, future studies should go beyond cyberbullying and consider issues related to social media more broadly. Kwan et al.’s (2020) study provides a basic apprehension of that terrifying new world–cyberbullying and social media combined in an era when more than half the population can be considered online natives. Using this approach is crucial in understanding the complex interactions between social media use and mental well-being among young people. As a result, Kwan et al.’s (2020) systematic mapping review illustrates the importance of their findings in cyberbullying. It constitutes an incitement to further work with interventions to promote young adults’ well-being on the web.

Theme 3: Impact of Social Comparison and Body Distress

Islam et al. (2018) hope to illuminate some factors that trigger capitalism and addictive purchasing patterns in young adults and adolescents via this in-depth investigation. Based on the stimulus-organism-response framework, the study’s methodology is based on the societal contrast hypothesis. The study’s authors make use of the methodology of structural equation modeling to explore the implications of personal communication as well as advertising factors on societal comparison, materialism, and compulsive buying in two separate analyses that involve adolescents (n = 298) and young adults (n = 345), with social networking sites acting as a mediator. The results of this study reveal that peer group comparison is integral to the development of materialistic mindsets and obsessive shopping habits, with young people showing a greater degree of societal comparativeness, consumerism, and obsessive purchasing compared to teenagers. In particular, the research investigation extends to the Influence of Social Standing and Body Discomfort by describing the roles of social networking sites in buffering the correlation between peer comparison and socio-economic ideals. The investigation highlights the importance of comprehending the significance of relationship communication in building social contrasts. It provides beneficial insights for business executives, pointing out the distinctive influence of social interaction on young people vs adolescents.

Keles et al. (2020) explore rising concerns about the detrimental effect of internet use on young adults’ psychological wellness in their comprehensive study. The article analyzes the influence of online social networking applications on feelings of depression, anxiety, and mental health problems in adolescents through amalgamating data collected from Thirteen research, more than half of the studies being descriptive in design. The research investigation defines causal connections between various aspects of engagement with social media and issues with mental health by classifying data into domains that include spent time, action, expenditures, & and dependency. The assessment’s broadness advances toward the Impacts of Social Comparison and Body Discomfort by shedding light on the layered relationship between various social media engagement features and psychological wellness. The investigators, nevertheless, advise against adopting outcomes, stressing out methodological constraints embedded in the predominantly cross-sectional methodology, sampling processes, and measuring devices. Keles et al. refer to additional research employing qualitative data collection and prospective cohort studies to clarify the mechanisms underlying online platforms’ purported effects on adolescents’ mental wellness.

Sharma et al. (2022) analyze the effects of the usage of Instagram on the observations of young adults in India in terms of social contrast, racial prejudice, and mental health issues. The research study adopts a correlated, informal technique using an ensemble size of 726 individuals, evaluating hypotheses via data supplied by participants. By applying Nonlinear Equation Modeling, this investigation reveals a favorable and crucial association between ages and concerns regarding society while accounting for the amount of time and frequency spent on Instagram. In particular, the findings indicate that interpersonal comparisons on Instagram potentially trigger racial prejudice and mental wellness issues. Notwithstanding that male or female gender proved to be barely tied to these issues, the qualitative research has significant effects on all Instagram users. The research study presents a significant addition to understanding the Influence of Social Standing and Body Distress by revealing the intricate interplay between the utilization of Instagram as well as the mental health of adolescents within an Indian cultural context. The researchers note the necessity of raising consciousness concerning these problems to foster an improved online setting.

With stringent four-wave longitudinal studies, Steinsbekk et al. (2023) dispute conventional fears surrounding the detrimental effects of networking sites on young adults’ mental wellness. The writers create an intelligent distinction between self-focused and other-centered online social networking exertion. In contrast to the general opinion, the results of their research illustrate that within-person variations in online social networking activity between those between the ages of 10 and 16 are independent of eventual signs and symptoms of anxiety or depressive symptoms and the other way around. This overall zero finding, consistent throughout sexes across time points, supports the findings that the frequency of sharing, liking, and comments fails to foresee potential mental wellness concerns. Consequently, this investigation offers important research evidence that disputes overly simplified links between social media use and emotional discomfort in adolescents. While doing so, it deepens comprehension of the intricate connection underlying online social networking practices and mental health, considerably contributing to the present debate on this multifaceted connection.

Choukas-Bradley et al. (2022) propose a developmental-sociocultural structure for their theory, which considerably increases the effect of Comparing People and Bodily Pain. Provide a developmental-sociocultural structure for their conceptual assessment, which considerably helps define the Effects of Comparing Others to Bodily Pain. Focused on adolescent girls, the paper suggests that social media’s features, such as idealized peer images and quantifiable feedback, intersect with developmental factors and sociocultural gender socialization to create a “perfect storm” intensifying body image concerns. The framework posits that these concerns serve as a crucial mechanism linking adolescent girls’ social media use to mental health, particularly depressive symptoms and disordered eating. Offering empirical evidence, the authors demonstrate how social media heightens girls’ focus on others’ physical appearance and their own, emphasizing exposure to idealized images and quantifiable indicators of approval. The investigation improves the topic by offering an in-depth awareness of the complex interactions among issues with body image and psychological wellness, alongside internet use among adolescent girls, achieved through establishing the complete approach. It draws attention to the harmful impacts of society’s insisting on looks, yet additionally paves the way for additional investigations looking into novel ways to lessen the harm that the internet causes to teenage girls’ psychological well-being.

Cook et al. (2021) contribute valuable insights into the Impact of Social Comparison and Body Distress by examining the association between time spent on social media and serious psychological distress among Ontario students between 2013 and 2017. Utilizing data from the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey, the study reveals a significant increase in the prevalence of serious psychological distress, coinciding with a rise in social media usage, especially at higher levels. Despite this, the authors find a noteworthy interaction between social media use and survey year, indicating that the strength of the association between times spent on social media and psychological distress has decreased over the studied period. This finding challenges the assumption of a direct and linear link between heavy social media use and psychological distress, suggesting a nuanced relationship that evolves. The study advances the field by emphasizing the need to consider the evolving nature of the association and calls for further research to comprehensively understand the complex factors contributing to the observed increases in psychological distress among students.

Irmer and Schmiedek (2023) contribute to understanding the impact of social comparison and body distress by addressing the nuanced relationship between youths’ daily social media use, well-being, and the mediating role of upward social comparisons. Conducting a 14-day diary study with 200 youths aged 10 to 14, the authors utilize multilevel structural equation models to explore within- and between-person associations. Their findings reveal that daily social media use, encompassing platforms like Instagram, TikTok, and YouTube, is linked to lower positive and higher negative self-worth. Additionally, upward social comparisons, reflecting a general impression of others being better off, are associated with diminished subjective well-being across various dimensions. The study advances the field by highlighting the (partial) mediation of the effect of social media use on subjective well-being by upward social comparisons at both the within- and between-person levels. By emphasizing the role of perceptions that others are better off, the research provides valuable insights that contribute to explaining the heterogeneity observed in previous findings regarding the impact of social media on well-being among youth.

Hu et al. (2021) contribute to understanding the impact of social comparison and body distress by investigating the effects of social comparison and depressive mood on adolescents’ social decision-making, utilizing the ultimatum game (UG). In two experiments, the study employs a 2 (group: depressive mood group, normal mood group) × 2 (social comparison: upward, downward) × 3 (fairness level: fair 5:5, unfair 3:7, extremely unfair 1:9) three-factor hybrid design. The results reveal that the fairness of a proposal influences participants’ sense of fairness and acceptance rate, with downward social comparison yielding a significantly higher acceptance rate than upward social comparison. Additionally, under the context of gain, the depressive mood group exhibits a higher acceptance rate than the normal mood group, with feelings of unfairness persisting in both gain and loss contexts. The findings advance the field by highlighting the nuanced interactions of social comparison, depressive mood, and fairness perceptions in adolescent social decision-making, emphasizing the need to consider emotional and cognitive factors in interventions to guide adolescents in making socially appropriate decisions.


Achievement of Research Aims


When evaluating the project’s overall goals, it is clear that the study has succeeded in examining the complex interactions among theological viewpoints, philosophical settings, and the effects of digital media interactions on people in society. The project’s development involved carefully analyzing the religious perspectives common in society and clarifying the complex effects of the internet on interpersonal dynamics. The initial goal was to assess religious viewpoints on how people are affected by digital media. The study effectively explored a range of theological perspectives, providing a thorough grasp of how different belief systems see and comprehend the influence of digital media on societal norms and values. This careful investigation established a strong basis for understanding the complex interplay between electronic communication and theology. In the second goal, the study carefully investigated the philosophical framework underlying digital interaction, offering insightful information on the character and extent of these relationships regarding user identification and interpersonal relationships.

The research achieved its intended goal by shedding light on the substantial effects of electronic communication on the structure of social links and the formation of personal identities by integrating philosophical ideas. The project’s final goal was to offer research that could influence future laws and procedures about how social media affects young people’s mental health. The research produced pertinent findings through a careful examination of the collected data, and these insights can greatly aid in developing well-informed regulations and procedures that tackle the effects of juvenile social media utilization on mental health. In summary, the research achieved its goals. It went above and beyond them, offering a wealth of information about the religious, philosophical nature, and psychological aspects of digital media interactions in society. The results can influence forthcoming discussions, regulations, and methodologies within this dynamic domain.

Recommendations for Future Research

As the present study project effectively ends, it also opens up new lines of inquiry for the future, providing a path forward for academics and researchers to keep deciphering the complex dynamics of the internet and how it affects society. Expanding on the groundwork established by this research, subsequent studies ought to probe more deeply into certain theological contexts to identify complex viewpoints toward digital media. Essentially, this study’s examination of theological viewpoints offers a general insight, but there is still a need for in-depth examinations within particular religious’ settings. In the future, scholars can think about focusing their study on specific belief systems and investigating how different faiths’ theological systems incorporate and understand digital media. This multifaceted approach would produce culturally appropriate and philosophically accurate findings, adding to a more thorough understanding of the relationship between faith and electronic communication. Additionally, the study provides opportunities for more investigation by delving into the philosophical framework of digital engagement.

Subsequent investigations might examine certain philosophical ideas and their consequences for digital media, delving into how existentialist, experiential, or ethical viewpoints influence people’s actions and perceptions online. Such targeted analyses would improve our understanding of the philosophical foundations influencing the nature of electronic communication. The request for more studies also addresses the mental health component, asking academics to investigate the long-term impacts of social networking sites on young people’s well-being. Moreover, longitudinal studies, which monitor participants over a prolonged period, may yield important insights into the changing influence of social media on psychological results and enable the discovery of relevant moderators and intervention tactics. To sum up, this study effort acts as a springboard for other academic pursuits. By focusing on particular theological viewpoints, exploring intricate philosophical concepts, and undertaking long-term investigations on the effects of electronic media on psychological wellness, scholars may enhance our comprehension of the complex interplay between electronic media and societies.


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