Mobile Learning for College English Vocabulary

Mobile Learning for College English Vocabulary

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Mobile Learning for College English Vocabulary: A Meta-Analysis of Existing Studies and Future Directions

In the following meta-analysis, the focused research methodically investigates how college students learn vocabulary in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL). The five distinct sections covered include an Introduction that establishes the importance of vocabulary in TESOL; a Method section that explains the procedure of gathering data through interviews; a Results section that analyzes perspectives from 40 Yale-Normal University learners; a Discussion section that assesses the effect of the stated phenomenon on teaching and learning; as well as a Conclusion that summarizes essential findings. The study emphasizes its wider ramifications for learners and the field of education. It offers TESOL teachers and education policymakers important insights by highlighting the blending of new technologies, like mobile applications, and varied teaching strategies. The findings are intended to direct efficient language instruction in line with the rapidly changing fields of deep learning and technology breakthroughs. Ultimately, this research aims to guide methods that improve vocabulary learning so that students are ready for the opportunities and challenges of taking both domestically and overseas TESOL classes.

Keywords: Mobile Learning, Deep Learning, College English Vocabulary, Language Learning, TESOL Students, Memorizing Vocabulary, Language Acquisition, And Vocabulary

Mobile Learning for College English Vocabulary: A Meta-Analysis of Existing Studies and Future Directions

  • Introduction

College students’ vocabulary acquisition is changing dramatically, and there’s a focus on using mobile learning technology to improve vocabulary in English. Incorporating technology gadgets is a crucial factor in the ever-evolving field of Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL), as it redefines conventional methods of language instruction. With its ability to be personalized, customized, and flexible, mobile learning is becoming a powerful tool for TESOL students in college. The importance of mobile learning comes from its capacity to go outside the walls of the conventional classroom and its adaptability. This method promotes ongoing and contextually appropriate language learning by enabling students to interact with English terminology within and outside the school.

There are several advantages to using mobile devices for higher education pupils who want to expand their understanding of words in English—the ease of learning while on the go allows students to incorporate language acquisition into their everyday lives. Through mobile learning apps and systems created especially for vocabulary building, learners can access content that suits their educational goals and skill levels (Klimova, 2019). The ability of mobile learning to offer dynamic and captivating language experiences is one of its most noteworthy benefits. Learning becomes more efficient and fun when gamified components are added to vocabulary-building apps. Word games, engaging workouts, and interactive tests on mobile devices foster a context that encourages active engagement, which improves vocabulary retention and helps users comprehend English words on a deeper level.

Moreover, mobile learning’s flexibility allows for various learning preferences and methods. Moreover, to meet their unique needs, students are free to select the speed and style of their education. With the help of interactive exercises, auditory cues, or visual aids, mobile devices enable students to customize their knowledge of vocabulary intake to match their learning styles and strengths (Chen et al., 2019). Regarding TESOL, mobile learning is a stimulant that promotes meaningful and organic interaction in the student’s target language (Elaish et al., 2019). Learners’ practical language abilities are improved when they are encouraged to use mobile phones for linguistic interchange events with native speakers. Additionally, online interactions expose students to real-world language usage, slang terms, and cultural quirks, which helps them connect their academic knowledge and practical application.

Educators must take advantage of mobile learning’s potential to help students acquire vocabulary related to collegiate English as the field of language education changes. A comprehensive review of previous research in this field provides insight into how well mobile learning supports vocabulary retention, language competency, and general engagement (Lin & Lin, 2019). Through synthesizing empirical knowledge, educators can customize their educational practices to optimize the advantages of mobile devices. As such, it is evident that the use of mobile learning technology turns out to be a game-changer for students studying vocabulary related to college English. Mobile devices’ flexibility, usability, and interactive qualities give students an infrastructure to engage fully in a dynamic, individualized learning environment. Teachers and learners stand to gain from the exciting possibilities of mobile learning in influencing the direction of language teaching as the TESOL environment changes.


A meta-analysis technique has been carefully selected as the framework for methodology for this research. Essentially, that is to perform an exhaustive review of the corpus of literature focused on mobile learning from the perspective of college English vocabulary. The systematic collection and quantitative synthesis of gathered data from separate primary studies investigating the precise same topic of study will be part of the meta-analysis undertaking. Additionally, the relevance of this analytical strategy lies in its attempt to produce a quantitative estimate of the primary variables under investigation. Subsequently, this enables a more nuanced appraisal of the effectiveness of the impact of mobile instruction on college learners’ acquisition of varying English vocabulary. Additionally, the method seeks to give a more solid and broadly applicable understanding of the topic by combining the results of various studies, thereby increasing the overall validity of the conclusions. In addition, the meta-analysis will facilitate future studies’ directions in Mobile Learning for English Vocabulary among learners in institutions of higher learning.

Furthermore, a thorough review of a wide range of academic publications from previous research was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of mobile apps in English vocabulary instruction. The sources were subjected to strict inclusion criteria, which included only scientific studies that completed a rigorous peer-review procedure and articles produced within the last five years. This systematic methodology guarantees that the chosen materials meet the strictest criteria of scholarly inspection and reflect the most recent developments and ideas. This analysis seeks to provide comprehensive knowledge of the influence of mobile apps on English vocabulary acquisition by integrating various current, peer-reviewed studies. This will provide insightful information for professionals, scholars, and instructors in the dynamic field.

Alhuwaydi (2022) explores the field of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL) applications in detail, with a particular emphasis on vocabulary acquisition in the setting of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). The study covers 2010 to 2022 and carefully looks at 146 papers according to parameters including publication duration, open-access, peer-reviewed classification, and experimental or smartphone applications. The authors specifically highlight the effects of vocabulary-tailored programs on EFL students. The critical significance of these applications in improving EFL learners’ vocabulary knowledge, drive, mindsets, and perspectives is revealed by their study of 51 qualifying studies. Alhuwaydi’s (2022) research makes a substantial contribution to the ongoing discussion over the efficacy of mobile educational devices for academic English vocabulary by illuminating the complex relationship that exists between customized apps and learning vocabulary in the setting of English as a foreign language (Alhuwaydi, 2022). Field investigators can use these findings to fill gaps and direct future studies.

A thorough review of a wide range of academic publications from previous research was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of mobile apps in English vocabulary instruction. The sources were subjected to strict inclusion criteria, including only scientific studies that completed a rigorous peer-review procedure and articles produced within the last five years. This systematic methodology guarantees that the chosen materials meet the strictest criteria of scholarly inspection and reflect the most recent developments and ideas. This analysis seeks to provide comprehensive knowledge of the influence of mobile apps on English vocabulary acquisition by integrating various current, peer-reviewed studies. This will provide insightful information for professionals, scholars, and instructors in the dynamic field.

By concentrating on university students’ impressions of Mobile Assisted Language studying (MALL) for learning English, Darsih and Asikin (2020) fill a significant research need. Though much research has been done on the benefits of MALL, not much has been done to examine how college students feel about using it to learn English. The study uses semi-structured surveys and interviews as its main data gathering methods, including 96 participants. The results show that users actively participate in MALL, employing widely used apps like Google Meet, YouTube, Kamusku, Elsa Speak, Zoom, and Google Translate. According to the study’s findings, these students view English mobile applications as helpful and believe they play a key role in making learning easier. The useful views that Darsih and Asikin’s observations of college students’ favorable opinions and use of MALL provide to the continuing discussion about the efficacy of Mobile Learning for College English Vocabulary (Darsih & Asikin, 2020) are much appreciated. The usefulness and perceived value of MALL apps in education are highlighted by this study (Darsih & Asikin, 2020).

Mahdi (2018) performed research whereby a thorough meta-analysis was used to evaluate the efficacy of cell phones in vocabulary acquisition. Mobile devices are acknowledged as extensively utilized ICTs that have demonstrated benefits for language acquisition. The meta-analysis contrasts the vocabulary learning effects of using handheld devices with conventional methods, covering 16 research with 986 participants. Interestingly, the results show a medium impact size (g =.67), suggesting that mobile devices considerably improve vocabulary acquisition. In-depth research reveals that handheld devices have modest impact sizes on responsive and effective vocabulary learning.

Furthermore, adult students profit more from mobile-assisted vocabulary acquisition than younger students. These complex results greatly advance the current discussion on the efficacy of mobile educational devices for college-level vocabulary in English (Mahdi, 2018). The design and application of mobile educational techniques in college-level English vocabulary training can be improved and informed by researchers using the results obtained from this meta-analysis (Mahdi, 2018).

Talal Ali Abozandah’s research focuses on understanding how Saudi students feel about utilizing mobile apps to acquire English vocabulary. The technology acceptance model (TAM), which is the foundation of this study, includes perceived utility and simplicity of use as important factors in predicting people’s attitudes toward contemporary technology (Davis, 1989). The results of a survey approach with 172 Saudi pupils from America show that students’ favorable opinions towards employing mobile devices for learning English vocabulary are significantly predicted by both perceived utility and perceived simplicity of use. The research makes a significant addition by providing empirical support for the TAM paradigm within the Saudi student setting. This validation offers insightful information for the wider discussion regarding the efficacy of mobile instruction for college English language learners (Abozandah). Instructors and instructional designers may use these results to improve student achievement in learning technology and guide educational engagement creation (Abozandah).

Kacetl and Klímová (2019) performed research examining the effectiveness of smartphone software for English language acquisition. The paper presents a thorough analysis of distinctive, peer-reviewed studies that were completed between 2015 and April 2019. The study looks at the advantages and usefulness of mobile apps for language learning, specifically for English as a second language. The study finds 16 unique journal papers by examining the literature on reputable sources such as Web of Science and Scopus. The results highlight the value of mobile learning in the classroom and how it may improve students’ cognitive ability, motivation, sense of autonomy, and self-assurance. These features correspond to the current discussion over the efficacy of mobile educational devices for college vocabulary in English (Kacetl & Klímová, 2019). The study offers significant insights by stressing the many advantages of mobile learning. It promotes a careful, based-on-needs strategy for creation and execution that aligns with what learners need and what realistic educational settings have to offer (Kacetl & Klímová, 2019).

Research on how learners think of utilizing mobile applications for instruction in English was carried out by Zhu (2018). Also, 39 Chinese students learning English participated in the study, which used interviews, questionnaires, and observational methods in the classroom. The results showed that students were satisfied with this learning method and mostly used mobile applications for English language acquisition for reasons connected to exams and jobs. The study also found that teachers’ instructions, students’ goals, and app design strongly impacted views toward utilizing mobile applications for language acquisition. Zhu (2018) notes that these observations add significant depth to the current discussion over the efficacy of mobile educational devices for college English vocabulary. The study’s pedagogical recommendations can help language instructors adjust their methods better to suit the requirements and preferences of their pupils. Additionally, the suggestions made may be used by app developers and future studies to improve the conception and execution of mobile apps utilized in educational environments (Zhu, 2018).

2.1. Interviews

The interviews used an outline that the interviewers had self-compiled to examine the participants’ viewpoints and emotions concerning the mobile acquisition of college English vocabulary. The system mainly concentrated on the following five areas: TESOL college students learning vocabulary in the English language; sources from which they can obtain such materials; how college students feel about this method; effects of this approach on college students; and current sources from which one can obtain this. In total, 40 students from every college involved were interviewed. Three others were planning to get the certificates to work as TESOL teachers, and none was an English teacher’s major. The interview involved 32 females, eight males, and their tutor. The interviews were conducted in the classroom of Yale University College of Foreign Languages. To maintain the validity of the interviews, we interviewed single, one-on-one participants among the forty respondents.

3.0. Results and Analysis

3.1. English Vocabulary to Mobile Learning

3.1.1. Using Vocabulary TESOL students.

All 40 interviewed participants reported that they were not conversant with English, with 28 explicitly mentioning using mobile learning to practice and memorize terms at the secondary school level. Six participants stated they had used English listening and reading software. The other five are used for word memorization. While the primary motivation for using these tools was exam preparation or meeting teacher requirements, only one student mentioned using them to improve their English proficiency. Nevertheless, mobile phone vocabulary applications for word recitation are widespread among college students today.

Table 1. Using Vocabulary Software to Learn Vocabulary by TESOL students.

  Interviews Results
A 28 Practice and memorize terms at the secondary school level
B 6 Utilized software for English listening and reading
C 5 Use for word memorization
D 1 improve their English proficiency.

3.1.3. Resources of Vocabulary Mobile Learning for TESOL students.

Despite this, eight students were convinced that even more applications should be provided concerning mobile language vocabulary learning. During this time, three students had used more than two different words. Another user mentioned that the product lacked more pre-define statements, and the words seemed general. Furthermore, it was also essential that students would have a chance to use another variety of synonyms. The other user also pointed out that the interface needs to be designed in such a way to assist the learning process, making this app more functional and very valuable to TESOL language learners. Removing a list on an alphabetic basis would help the student to read through the material naturally and according to their vocabulary requirements. Therefore, a better flashcard system that required pre-edit and ready-for-learning vocabulary tweeted for instant use was needed in the application. User feedback indicated that a very persuasive tutorial should be included to give learners an insight into how that program assists them in their classes.

Table 3. Resources of college English vocabulary for TESOL students

  Interviewer Results
A 32 Agreed that there was an adequate amount of resources available for mobile learning of English vocabulary
B 8 There were not enough applications available for such learning

3.1.4. Deficient Impacts of college English vocabulary for TESOL students

The author’s interviews with all ten university students revealed that learning College English vocabulary substantially increased the students’ vocabulary. Eighteen out of the interviewees claimed they could only recall one or two of them and could not comprehend the precise application of the words. 12 out of the 22 students identified 10 English vocabularies. The rest recalled ten vocabularies. The student expressed that vocabulary words are helpful for training or short-term memory and for professionals whose main area of focus is not English. However, they emphasized that English majors should depend on something other than this method of instruction. Students still require additional resources to learn how to correctly use new words in context, even though vocabulary software can help them learn more words. TESOL students should evaluate it objectively when they utilize it as an educational tool. Regarding their education, they should be proactive in looking for different ways to improve their learning rather than putting all their eggs in one basket and depending solely on luck.

Table 4. Deficient Impacts of college English vocabulary for TESOL students

  Interview Results
A 18 Recall one or two of the vocabulary.
B 12 Recalled five vocabulary
C 10 Recalled ten vocabulary

 4.0. Discussion

4.1. Suggestions on college English vocabulary for TESOL students

4.1.1. From the Views of College Students

College TESOL students must supplement their mobile vocabulary learning with additional resources, such as reading and listening, to master the precise usage of the words and contextualize them before using them to extend their vocabulary. College English vocabulary remains the most effective means of expanding reading vocabulary; nevertheless, increasing vocabulary for speaking and writing constitutes a difficult task (Cakmak, 2019). Therefore, as one concludes the study, it says that students need more support materials to grasp all the uses of nouns. Similarly, TESOL students need to review and revise their stances. In response to the interviews, the dissatisfied students complained about the insufficient word volumes. Using word counts is restricted to standard examinations, so students hardly take lessons on extra topics. Even though the word book is written for fourth- or sixth-graders, it contains some typical words (Hao et al., 2019). Any textbook will help the college build up its language base, especially when you can relate it to everyday experiences. To stop students from being distracted in deciding what wordbook to utilize.

College TESOL students must set up short- and long-term goals for mobile learning. Although the students are starting to understand mobile learning, only a few will use it for daily word memorization. However, most of these students need more learning goals and strategies; thus, they constantly improvise or feel that they need to learn something, and then they need help to believe in their capacity (Elaish et al., 2019). College English vocabulary learning helps students to extend their skills beyond the classroom. In such a case, TESOL students have to read and understand without the guidance of their teachers. Therefore, developing sensible, scientific, and authentic learning objectives and lesson plans becomes necessary.

4.1.2. From the Views of Software Developers

TESOL instructors can first include listening and reading exercises, word memorizing, and English language learning components into the same software to facilitate mobile learning, saving students the effort of downloading multiple applications. Simplicity is critical for integration; however, current software in the modern world is becoming increasingly one-directional and complex (Kacetl & Klímová, 2019). Additionally, to mention one thing, events may help raise awareness gradually that it is worth paying for data if they combine financial benefits with punch-in, make punch-in more popular, and attract users to this function. However, the findings of the interviews revealed that it was not due to any technical problems but rather the costs involved in buying it. Only three students admitted using money to pay for Word processing services. At the same time, only one pupil approved the method (Hao et al., 2019). Payment of students is not easy, as it is often paid reluctantly and, therefore, in most cases, is impossible. Nevertheless, additional costs are an inherent downside of enhancing the college vocabulary learning experience. However, there can only be a fundamental balancing of commission costs and sales when the system of paying for the knowledge is set up.

4.1.3. From the Views of Teachers

As TESOL educators, teachers are entitled to assist students in choosing word processing from the vast number of solutions available, each of which has a unique quality profile. These platforms include Microsoft Word, OpenOffice, LibreOffice, and Google Docs (Elaish et al., 2019). The study findings after conducting interviews with college students revealed that the majority opted for learning software based on the recommendations from their tutors and colleagues (Chen et al., 2019). Secondly, the other two students moved onto their lecturer-recommended software, believing it facilitated a smoother transition in learning processes and drove them from childhood to adulthood.

In particular, TESOL teachers can counsel learners on how they could approach and learn through different techniques. College students can benefit immensely from independent learning; however, this will only be possible with the help and aid of their instructors. Students who start their college experience as overrun most likely had their primary schooling education structured around their teachers (Talan, 2020). One must move from being instructor-centered to being self-directed to utilize mobile learning tools successfully. Furthermore, this is only possible if instructors give the learners tips and advice about techniques and strategies one can independently use while learning using these tools.

4.2. How TESOL Students Can Improve on Vocabulary Acquisition

Some strategies can be used to improve vocabulary acquisition for college students taking TESOL classes abroad. These strategies include sight reading, exploration, and memorization. Memorization techniques involve using a word better when learned through reading, hearing, writing, and speaking. Three strategies that college students can adopt for increased vocabulary enhancement among TESOL students may include.

By using exercise, college students can enhance their vocabulary, suitable for TESOL studies. Sight reading enables college students to acquire new vocabulary quickly. They may opt to check through an existing vocabulary list of previously mastered words. New vocabulary must be read, and all the comments from the list should be reviewed before college students can familiarize themselves with such lists. In college, students can visit their teachers or professors who can assist them with understanding the new words in their classes (Nguyen, 2021). This way, they shall realize new terms taught by their teachers and professors in class. College students should be exposed to new words explained by commonly known words. Moreover, this will enable college students to understand why they should learn unfamiliar words. The use of TESOL classroom lessons vocabulary by college students will assist them in knowing the vocabulary used in their TESOL courses, which will allow them to master this vocabulary while still being in TESOL classrooms.

College students can improve their vocabulary for TESOL students by utilizing encyclopedias and dictionaries. Expository reading, described as “the information given in a textbook accompanying an examination or lecture,” is helpful for college students learning new terminology for their TESOL classes. When interacting with their teacher, college students can seek clarification of unfamiliar words from the lessons or textbooks (Jaikrishnan & Ismail, 2021). Doing so will improve their understanding of new vocabulary for their TESOL classroom lessons. Regarding this, they should be able to question the use of words and translations in textbooks or classrooms they are reading with.

Flashcards can help college students increase their vocabulary for TESOL students. College students have a wide array of vocabulary, which is uncommon, meaning flashcards are handy. They can have a piece of paper whereby they will inscribe the unknown words before them or inside their books. Therefore, college students should look at the flashcards daily to memorize additional words or phrases and work on those phrases before the next session (Jaikrishnan & Ismail, 2021). The students can also carry this flashcard while attending classes and remember the words they have acquired. The teachers can also give them flashcards, which they can use to memorize and review new vocabulary while in TESOL classroom lessons.

College students can improve their vocabulary for TESOL students by self-testing. College students, for instance, may practice vocabulary tasks through self-testing. There will be some sample words that college students may have yet to hear, which is essential for completing the self-test functions. TESOL classroom lessons are new words for college students; therefore, these self-test tasks should be practiced and straightforward to understand (Jaikrishnan & Ismail, 2021). The word list can be printed onto a card, and college students can check their words using this method. The second list of words allows college students to put new words to coincide with the first set of cards. With this approach, they will develop a new vocabulary and better understand studying in a TESOL classroom lesson. Whenever college students realize that they are profoundly learning new words, they should keep in mind that studying is a necessity, hence improving vocabulary acquisition for TESOL students.

As such, college students may acquire new vocabulary necessary for TESOL learners through frequent reading. College students can enrich their vocabulary through regular reading during the TESOL classroom lessons. Also, this program allows them to read newspapers, magazines, and any written textbooks or articles. College students should read daily to understand more about the new vocabulary they are being taught and how best to remember it. To enhance vocabulary acquisition for tesol classes, college students should read what they understand and relate it more to what they read (John et al., 2021). Therefore, they should interact with the literature they read since it enables them to grasp unfamiliar vocabulary words rarely known by many others within the community.

TESOL students can also be helped if college students review the vocabulary list in the class. Taking notes will help college students practice the new words they learned. While at home, they should buy a notebook and pen to note down the unfamiliar words they encounter during their classes (John et al., 2021). In each notebook, they should check for every new word. Also, this is how they will remember what they have read. The notebooks will be essential for retaining their reading during TESOL class sessions.

Rather than having college students memorize word lists, they should write sentences containing new words to help improve their vocabulary for TESOL students. Collegial learners can re-write the complete sentences with a new comment and learn them without feeling uncomfortable using these new words. That way, college students would better understand additional vocabulary obtained through TESOL classroom lessons (John et al., 2021). College students will hence be reminded about the meaning and usage of new vocabulary as it helps recall when reading. College students may share with their friends about any school lesson or an online lesson on linguistic skills and increase their vocabulary for TESOL students.

4.3. Importance of English Vocabulary Mobile Learning

Learning vocabulary by TESOL students is one of the most critical aspects of teaching language. Idioms and idiomatic phrases, crucial parts of vocabulary, can help college students become proficient in the language they are learning. Nevertheless, deep learning idiomatic expressions that improve the genuineness of their target language ability presents a great difficulty for many language learners. It is more challenging to teach casual terms because it is hard to immediately understand what they imply literally (Chen et al., 2021). As a result, there are plenty of opportunities to create appropriate environments for teaching idioms, particularly by utilizing widely available technology like mobile applications.

Based on this study, learning vocabulary by TESOL students greatly helps enhance students’ experiences and their willingness. The results show that mobile learning has excellent benefits. Such TESOL practices include empowering a learner’s thinking skills, encouraging motivation for studying in different educational settings, facilitating confident learners and independent students, tailored teaching sessions, and helping low-performing students reach their education target. Many students view the inclusion of deep learning in the English language as beneficial (Yang et al., 2022). However, mobile deep understanding enabled students’ accessibility to educational resources and created a flexible learning environment independently of the teacher’s assistant. Moreover, this led to student engagement and strengthened self-belief in overcoming the language barrier in learning English.

Additionally, it is shown that the TESOL students who used the vocabulary were more academically successful than those of the control group. Moreover, this reflects similar observations reported in other study investigations involving deep learning as a pedagogical tool. There was improved academic performance and increased student satisfaction after incorporating the deep learning application (Fu et al., 2021). The result implies that the experimental groups had more extraordinary ability for word identification by printed materials. The multiple regression analyses revealed that the models were significant for the experimental group at every phase. The fact that their word acquisition through deep learning was more successful shows that this method is efficient for TESOL students. As such, it clearly shows that deep learning can be used as a substitute for studying language.

Mobile learning vocabulary benefits TESOL students, who are often expected to learn large amounts of abstract vocabulary as an essential part of their courses (Fu et al., 2022). One can also employ electronic speeches and allophonic approaches to improve an individual’s phonetic accuracy. Students can easily access the audio messages provided. They can keep listening to them repeatedly because they go hand in hand with the recommended and corrective TESOL teacher’s advice concerning pronunciation. The study showed the utility for TESOL learners to increase their vocabulary comprehensively by using mobile learning vocabulary. Language study using a mobile learning platform is a very engaging way of studying, even when the learners are within their campuses or on holiday breaks. The results also point out that mobile learning is preferable concerning print media, as this option reduces the possibility of information loss, like word-for-word vocabulary transmission.

Memorizing vocabulary words with mobile learning terminology is one of the best ways. Free time is also beneficial for effective English learning. Moreover, this is also a method for you to practice occasionally on your long trips or while you wait somewhere. Moreover, this helps those who love traveling and want to learn foreign languages. It is also helpful to those planning on enriching their vocabulary with a useful device. In addition, mobile learning vocabulary enables you to study new words and communicate through the phone when you go for the on-site language programs that do not offer classes or teachers. Since the introduction of mobile learning, educators have proposed that mobile learning can be an alternative to conventional teaching methods. The TESOL students who used the vocabulary were more academically successful than those of the control group (Fu et al., 2022). Both experimental groups (mobile learning and control groups) likely have standard features regarding their vocabulary knowledge. However, multiple regression analyses showed that the models were significant for the experimental groups.

Vocabulary acquisition by college students has become an essential part of informal learning. This mode of vocabulary platform presents an expedient solution to TESOL students and teachers; they can use it from anywhere worldwide to access learning resources (Kacetl & Klímová, 2019). Moreover, the writer presented a narrative about the positive aspects of college mobile learning, such as educational instruments, enhanced communication skills, administrative ease, broad accessibility, and innovative tutorials (Guo & Li, 2022). Additionally, M-learners must contend with the difficulty involved in finding and saving information on mobile platforms. The small screen sizes coupled with this hinder the accessibility.

This current study presented a scholarly contribution by demonstrating that using mobile applications to learn vocabulary could be more effective than paper-based activities. The composition of language learning exercises or exercises on vocabulary is a very long and serious business for the teacher. Furthermore, TESOL teachers must consider the pedagogical variables while developing vocabulary activities. TESOL educators have fewer options in the form of ready-made mobile applications for teaching vocabulary than with all other means they use (Tsai, 2020). Although the creators of such applications claim that these applications were thoroughly based on scientific findings related to vocabulary teaching and were at first conceived as vocabulary-teaching tools, verifying these statements takes work since these applications are numerous. It implies that teachers should use these applications to evaluate their usefulness in teaching a language.

College vocabulary mobile learning has led to new methodologies for education. It is increasing mainly because many people find the benefits they bring valuable in their daily activities, jobs, or studies (Szymkowiak et al., 2021). Some educational institutions, including universities, have conducted experimental studies on the impact of TESOL on students (Ramzan et al., 2023). Although the existing knowledge surrounding language skills learning is still young and needs to be discovered, the results suggest enhancement rather than worsening of learners’ experience.

TESOL Students can receive information and articulate themselves without restrictions through written prep and online sharing. For example, students do not have to participate on the ground during the physical lessons; therefore, the fear and anxieties commonly associated with them in the class are eliminated (Romero-Rodríguez et al., 2021). Moreover, This allows them to operate at their free will in an environment that is not oppressive. This method of word acquisition acted as a prompt for self-instructional learning for most students. This program would motivate kids to learn college vocabulary words. Competition among college students is assured because participants become confident and acquire a sense of achievement when they have successfully performed in a live broadcast, which makes them feel good.

College English vocabulary enables long-term learning and is increasingly common in globalized economies and cultures (Bernacki et al., 2021). In the postmodern age, college students need to refresh their knowledge and skills all the time or risk falling behind the curve of modernization. Traditional education might only be available sometimes, meaning people can only learn through self-education. College English vocabulary for TESOL students could enhance lifelong learning because they take minimal time and do not restrict other activities like employment and private life (Hwang & Fu, 2019). Furthermore, college students who do not necessarily study English vocabulary will be taught many subjects with limited language learning time. Portability, lightness, and sturdy attributes make a smartphone superior to any other mobile learner regarding vocabulary acquisition (Chavoshi & Hamidi, 2019). Also, this would effectively allow learners to unleash and unutilize broken times and contribute to successful vocabulary learning. It will also increase learning efficiency and reduce time spent at school. (Klimova, 2019). It increasingly becomes an integral part of people’s lives and a learning tool.

4.4. The Problems of English Vocabulary Mobile Learning

vocabulary acquisition of college students by TESOL students is characterized by its superficial nature and the unattainability of achieving total mastery. Most students’ responses show reluctance toward vocabulary programs because they provide extensive single-word-only definitions and few sample sentences (Grant, 2019). The university students, especially those studying for exams and articles in English as their majors, pointed this out. Besides, particular software word volumes must pay subscription charges while others must buy their services simultaneously (Grant, 2019). However, according to an interview outcome, most college students are against this opinion. Essentially, this also applies to many new forms of software, including recently developed mobile learning, which includes a built-in payment facility.

The cost of word processing vocabulary words becomes a significant factor for college students when deciding whether to continue using it and others. The only students who raised an issue with using their resources on word processing were three out of five students. Also, one student did not care whether they had to do that. Additionally, this means that although some popular software has included a payment system before, as indicated above, society still cannot agree to pay for info (Kacetl & Klímová, 2019). Also, this applies when payment systems have already been established. However, this may limit the development of vocabulary learning using mobile phones. In addition to their particular reasoning, students shared their belief that the reward system did not have sufficient appeal, contributing to decreased motivation to participate. Some students dropped out of the program after only two days of attendance since the campaign’s prizes were too small, and the gold refund could be used solely to purchase additional course credits.

Although the results indicate that learning new words with a smartphone may enhance one’s lexicon, multiple issues still demand answers. Despite being enthusiastic learners who would love to apply their smartphones in learning vocabulary, they have yet to achieve much success in their hunt for reliable applications or approaches that can support their studies. Students cannot wait to employ smartphones, too. Persistence is required in all of these applications, and many students fail to meet their minimum threshold due to a lack of this quality (Nartiningrum & Nugroho, 2020). Furthermore, the human brain quickly loses these ideas as they do not stick into memory with the context in which they are expressed. Despite this, these programs have little effect on students’ ability to write effectively or communicate with others. However, it is still helpful to students who seek a way to enhance reading of the text to gain information that results in understanding. Therefore, creators of vocabulary applications should look for ways of improving and remodeling what a student’s word store is.

5.0. Conclusion

An increased interest in word acquisition has emerged among TESOL students. Introduction to Mobile learning is the new way in which university students are interested in cutting-edge approaches to academic training. However, the shortcomings in functionality and variation with the existing learnerware on the market have impeded the progress to mobile learning of English vocabulary. However, it has flaws, although the conclusions obtained via the reviewed literature and the interview data provided in this study may be drawn. The ten-college student sample, however, needs to be more significant to sufficiently reflect the state of mobile vocabulary learning in modern-day English. Also, mobile learning, specifically for English vocabulary, is still relatively young; therefore, there are few studies on this topic. Hence, the researcher should consider a broader category of subjects, such as teachers, engineers, and various types of students, for future investigations to strengthen the credibility and authenticity of the conclusions obtained.

Some strategies can be used to improve vocabulary acquisition for college students taking TESOL classes abroad. These strategies include sight reading, exploration, and memorization. Vocabulary acquisition remains essential in ensuring linguistic competence and developing the ability to speak fluently in the target language. Much thought has been focused on the search for a perfect instruction method for vocabulary. Idiomatic expressions are also commonly used and play a vital role as one of the non-literal forms of expression. Such non-literal forms can be building blocks for ordinary speech activities. Therefore, the non-expertise in using idiomatic expressions would result in poor communication, whereby the language learners might appear non-native in their language output. These expressions are significant for achieving good proficiency in the target language. Using idiomatic expressions starts with an introductory course and needs to be done naturally. That being said, the mastery level of such words corresponds to that of the target language.


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