NUR 502 Cardiovascular Pulmonary PowerPoint Presentation

Sample Answer for NUR 502 Cardiovascular Pulmonary PowerPoint Presentation


  • Cardiovascular disorders have significant population health impacts​
  • Prevention and timely management improve outcomes ​
  • Appropriate assessments guide disease diagnosis and management ​
  • Presentation focuses on hypertension 

Incidence and Prevalence of Hypertension ​

  • Hypertension contributed to 691095 deaths in 2021 in USA​
  • 48.1% of adults have hypertension ​
  • I in 4 adults have controlled hypertension, 45% have uncontrolled hypertension ​
  • Hypertension costs the US $131 billion annually ​
  • Prevalence was 49.64% in 2017-2018​
  • Men have higher prevalence (50%) than women (44%)​
  • More common in non-Hispanic black adults (56%( than non-Hispanic white adults (48%)

Pathophysiology of Hypertension 

  • Sympathetic nervous system dysfunction initiates hypertension development​
  • Altered Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system also plays a role ​
  • Endothelial dysfunction also contributes to hypertension ​
  • Increased availability of vasoactive substances induce mechanisms associated with hypertension 
  • Inflammatory and immune processes also lead to hypertension ​
  • Genetic alterations predispose individuals to hypertension​
  • Environmental risks such as increased dietary intake of salt and unhealthy diets implicated in hypertension​
  • Microbiome also modulates hypertension occurrence 

Assessment of Hypertension 

  • History taking ​
  • Comprehensive physical examination ​
  • Accurate measurement of blood pressure ​
  • Assessing organ involvement through laboratory and diagnostic investigations 

Treatment of Hypertension: Non-Pharmacological Treatments  

  • Weight reduction ​
  • Dietary salt reduction ​
  • Regular aerobic exercises ​
  • Smoking cessation ​
  • Reduction of alcohol consumption 

Pharmacological Management of Hypertension

  • Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors​
  • Angiotensin receptor inhibitors ​
  • Calcium channel blockers​
  • Diuretics 
  • Beta blockers​
  • Aldosterone antagonists ​
  • Alpha blockers ​
  • Catheter-based treatments for resistant hypertension

Patient Education in Hypertension

  • Regular physical activity​
  • Weight control​
  • Stress reduction ​
  • Smoking cessation 
  • Reduced alcohol intake​
  • Reduced dietary salt intake ​
  • Treatment adherence ​
  • Self-monitoring of blood pressure

Cultural and Spiritual Considerations 

  • Culture and religious affiliation influence treatment adherence​
  • Culture influences patient’s perceived susceptibility to disease ​
  • Spirituality might contribute to poor adherence based on patient’s belief on divine healing ​
  • Treatment plans should align with patient’s preferences and values​
  • Nurses should educate patients to increase their understanding and lower effects of culture and spirituality on treatment adherence 

Effects of Hypertension on the Elderly

  • Hypertension prevalence is the highest among patients aged 60 years and above (63.1%)​
  • High rates seen among non-Hispanic black elder patients ​
  • The risk increases with comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes, or a family history of hypertension ​
  • Social determinants of health influence health outcomes in elderly patients with hypertension 

Hypertension Disease Burden in Elderly Population

  • Increased healthcare spending ​
  • Increased risk of hypertension-related complications ​
  • Poor quality of life​
  • Premature mortalities 


  • Hypertension is a crucial population health problem​
  • Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments effective for hypertension ​
  • Patient-centered education important for optimum outcomes ​
  • Hypertension has adverse effects on the elderly populations 


Burnier, M., Polychronopoulou, E., & Wuerzner, G. (2020). Hypertension and Drug Adherence in the Elderly. Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine7, 524790.​

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CDC. (2019, June 6). Products—Data Briefs—Number 289—October 2017.​

CDC. (2023, July 6). Facts About Hypertension | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.​

Chobufo, M. D., Gayam, V., Soluny, J., Rahman, E. U., Enoru, S., Foryoung, J. B., Agbor, V. N., Dufresne, A., & Nfor, T. (2020). Prevalence and control rates of hypertension in the USA: 2017–2018. International Journal of Cardiology Hypertension6, 100044.​

Hall, J. E., Omoto, A. C. M., Wang, Z., Mouton, A., Li, X., & Hall, M. E. (2024). 5—Pathophysiology of Hypertension. In G. L. Bakris, M. J. Sorrentino, & L. J. Laffin (Eds.), Hypertension (Fourth Edition) (pp. 71–86). Elsevier.​

Harrison, D. G., Coffman, T. M., & Wilcox, C. S. (2021). Pathophysiology of Hypertension. Circulation Research128(7), 847–863.​

Ni, W., Yuan, X., Zhang, J., Li, P., Zhang, H. M., Zhang, Y., & Xu, J. (2021). Original research: Factors associated with treatment and control of hypertension among elderly adults in Shenzhen, China: a large-scale cross-sectional study. BMJ Open11(8).​

Oliveros, E., Patel, H., Kyung, S., Fugar, S., Goldberg, A., Madan, N., & Williams, K. A. (2020). Hypertension in older adults: Assessment, management, and challenges. Clinical Cardiology43(2), 99–107.

Putri, S. E., Rekawati, E., & Wati, D. N. K. (2021). Effectiveness of Self-Management on Adherence to Self-Care and on Health Status among Elderly People with Hypertension. Journal of Public Health Research10(1_suppl), jphr.2021.2406.​

Rabi, D. M., McBrien, K. A., Sapir-Pichhadze, R., Nakhla, M., Ahmed, S. B., Dumanski, S. M., Butalia, S., Leung, A. A., Harris, K. C., Cloutier, L., Zarnke, K. B., Ruzicka, M., Hiremath, S., Feldman, R. D., Tobe, S. W., Campbell, T. S., Bacon, S. L., Nerenberg, K. A., Dresser, G. K., … Daskalopoulou, S. S. (2020). Hypertension Canada’s 2020 Comprehensive Guidelines for the Prevention, Diagnosis, Risk Assessment, and Treatment of Hypertension in Adults and Children. Canadian Journal of Cardiology36(5), 596–624.​

Wahab, N. A. A., Bakry, M. M., Ahmad, M., Noor, Z. M., & Ali, A. M. (2021). Exploring Culture, Religiosity and Spirituality Influence on Antihypertensive Medication Adherence Among Specialised Population: A Qualitative Ethnographic Approach. Patient Preference and Adherence15, 2249.

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