NUR 502 Module 3 Discussion Pulmonary Function

Sample Answer for NUR 502 Module 3 Discussion Pulmonary Function
Severity Asthma Attack Classification 
According to the presented information in the case study, the asthma attack experienced by D.R. can be categorized as moderate persistent asthma. Typically, moderate persistent asthma is commonly used for describing patients whose symptoms are not controlled accordingly, especially on the lower inhaled corticosteroid dosage (Holland, 2019). Through moderate persistent asthma, severe asthma symptoms are likely to rise daily and approximately at night weekly. Significantly most individuals diagnosed with moderate persistent asthma have normal lung functioning is approximately 60 up to 80% when no treatment is administered though much function is regained when treatment is administered (Holland, 2019). For this case, the classification was influenced by the frequency of symptoms since D.R. was encountering significant symptoms daily. Additionally, the night awakenings is another  factor whereby D.R. has been experiencing nighttime symptoms for about three nights in the past week contributed to the classification. 
 Asthma Common Triggers 
 The common triggers comprise allergens such as pollens and respiratory infections like respiratory infections. Considering the patient’s case, there are likelihood of allergens contributing to the asthma symptoms he is experiencing. This is evident based on how he keeps on complaining of stuffy nose, waterway eyes, and postnasal discharge, which are known to be allergic responses. Regarding the respiratory infection, symptoms comprising breath shortness, cough, and nasal; symptoms reported by D.R in the past for days might confirm this trigger. This is influenced by the notion that these symptoms timings go hand in hand with respiratory infections. 
 Factors that might be D.R Etiology  
One of the factors that might influence asthma exacerbation in D.R. is genetic predisposition. Traditionally, genetic factors are likely to impact the immune system’s response to environmental factors (Ranjbar et al., 2022). The other factor is the environmental exposure. Typically, being exposed to different environmental factors influences asthma development and exacerbation. Considering the patient’s case, the symptoms he presents indicate that the genetic and environmental factors have resulted in his asthma. 
Holland, K. (2019, January 28). Moderate persistent asthma: Causes, symptoms, and treatment. Healthline.  
Links to an external site. 
Ranjbar, M., Whetstone, C. E., Omer, H., Power, L., Cusack, R. P., & Gauvreau, G. M. (2022). The genetic factors of the airway epithelium associated with the pathology of asthma. Genes, 13(10), 1870.  
Links to an external site. 
Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Homeostasis 
 Type of Water and Electrolyte Imbalance 
One of the water and electrolyte imbalances according to the admission laboratory values if Ms. Brown is hypernatremia. This is a result of increased high serum sodium emanating from insufficient intake of water and dehydration. The other one is hyperglycemia. Normally, this is associated with increased levels of serum glucose, contributing to dehydration and osmotic diuresis. Another one is hyperchloremia connected by increased chloride levels and highly indicates dehydration as it accompanies hypernatremia. 
 Signs and Symptoms. 
 Traditionally, hypernatremia is highly manifested with dryness in the mucous membranes, restlessness, thirst, and interfered mental status. Additionally, hyperglycemia signs and symptoms include urinating frequently, blurred vision, fatigue, and exercising thirst. Considering hyperchloremia, this condition is normally asymptomatic though it is connected with dehydration and acidosis. About Ms. Brown’s potassium levels, which in this case is high potassium levels, the commonly presented symptoms comprise fatigue, weakness of the muscles, and cardiac arrhythmias (Cleveland Clinic, 2023). 
 Suitable Treatment 
 One of the treatments involves electrolyte imbalance correction and monitoring with proper measures. Another treatment is encouraging the use of intravenous fluid for addressing the dehydration issue and correcting hyponatremia. 
 ABG indicating acid-base imbalance 
 Based on Ms. Brown acidosis is indicated by a pH of 7.30. Additionally, metabolic acidosis is indicated by HC03-20mEq/L. moreover, respiratory compensation for metabolic acidosis is portrayed by PaCO2 32 mmHg. 
Clinical Significance and Anion Gaps 
 The anion gap refers to the existence difference between the measured cation and anion. Normally, an anion gap is useful for pinpointing possible errors in electrolyte measurements. In most instances, an anion gap that is elevated indicates metabolic acidosis. Significantly, the anion gap’s clinical significance is that it is helpful for metabolic acidosis diagnosis and classification. This helps guide suitable treatment. 
Cleveland Clinic. (2023, May 11). Hyperkalemia.  
Links to an external site. 
Pandey, D. G., & Sharma, S. (2023, July 10). Biochemistry, anion gap – StatPearls – NCBI bookshelf. National Center for Biotechnology Information.  
Sample Answer 2 for NUR 502 Module 3 Discussion Pulmonary Function
Module 3 Discussion 
Pulmonary Function 
Classification of Asthma 
The data presented in the case study indicate that D.R.’s asthma incident was a mild exacerbation, as described by Martin et al. (2020). His symptoms, which have been going on for four days, include a stuffy nose, watery eyes, growing difficulty breathing, wheezing, exhaustion, coughing, and postnasal discharge. Three times in the last week, he has had symptoms throughout the night, and his peak flow rates are between 65 and 70% of his normal baseline. His symptoms have not improved after self-treatment with regular albuterol nebulizer medication, suggesting a moderate degree of severity and the need for more active care. 
Common Asthma Triggers 
Inhaled allergens, irritants, respiratory infections, physical exertion, and emotional stress are the most prevalent asthma triggers for individual patients. The case study does not identify D.R.’s particular precipitating factors. His present asthma attack might be triggered by common allergens, irritants, and respiratory infections (Martin et al., 2020). He mentions a stuffy nose and watery eyes, so it is possible that these are contributing factors. 
Etiology of D.R. 
D.R.’s asthma may have several causes. Environmental and genetic factors both contribute to the complexity of asthma, a respiratory illness. Asthma may develop for a variety of reasons, including hereditary susceptibility, contact with allergens, respiratory infections, and a family history of the condition. As seen in D.R.’s instance, symptoms might increase due to insufficient asthma control, non-adherence to recommended medicine, or delayed treatment during an exacerbation (Martin et al., 2020). In order to effectively treat asthma, it is essential to identify and address these issues. 
Fluid, Electrolyte and Acid-Base Homeostasis 
According to Ms. Brown’s test results, she has hyperglycemia (412 mg/dL), hypernatremia (156 mEq/L), hyperchloremia (115 mEq/L), and hyperkalemia (5.6 mEq/L) in her blood. People with uncontrolled diabetes often experience a kind of water and electrolyte imbalance known as the hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS), as our data indicate (Prabhu, 2023). Extreme dehydration, elevated serum osmolality, and electrolyte abnormalities are symptoms of hyperglycemia syndrome (HHS). 
Signs and Symptoms of the Imbalance 
Dehydration, as shown in hypernatremia (excessive sodium in the blood), causes excessive thirst and dry mucous membranes; hyperkalemia, on the other hand, may cause muscular weakness, exhaustion, and possibly fatal cardiac arrhythmias (Prabhu, 2023). Serious consequences, such as weakness, exhaustion, and perhaps heart problems, might result from Ms. Brown’s high potassium level (5.6 mEq/L). 
Taking care of Ms. Brown’s diabetes and the electrolyte imbalances it causes is the best course of action. Rehydration and correction of electrolyte imbalances would be achieved via intravenous (IV) fluid administration. Her high blood glucose levels would be reduced with the use of insulin (Prabhu, 2023). Continuous treatment planning also requires careful monitoring of blood glucose and serum electrolytes. 
ABGs Indication 
Due to her low bicarbonate (HCO3-) level (20 mEq/L) and low pH (7.30), Ms. Brown is seen to be suffering from metabolic acidosis in the ABGs. The buildup of ketoacids due to insufficient insulin and the metabolic consequences of her uncontrolled diabetes are probably to blame for this acid-base imbalance (Whitmore & Gunnerson, 2020). 
Anion Gaps 
The anion gap is a numerical metric for evaluating the presence of undetectable ions in plasma. (Na+ – [Cl- + HCO3-]) is the formula for it. Unmeasured anions, such as ketoacids in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), are indicated by an elevated anion gap. Its diagnostic value in determining the etiology of metabolic acidosis and the best course of therapy is its primary clinical relevance (Whitmore & Gunnerson, 2020). Ketoacidosis, a complication of uncontrolled diabetes, may be the cause of Ms. Brown’s high anion gap. 
Martin, M. J., Beasley, R., & Harrison, T. W. (2020). Towards a personalized treatment approach for asthma attacks. Thorax. 
Prabhu, S. R. (2023). Imbalances in Fluids and Electrolytes, Acids and Bases: An Overview. Textbook of General Pathology for Dental Students, 111-114. 
Whitmore, S. P., & Gunnerson, K. J. (2020). Acid-Base and Electrolyte. Emergency Department Critical Care, 301. 

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