NUR 600 Module 5 Discussion Treatments for Gastrointestinal & Endocrine Disorders

Sample Answer for NUR 600 Module 5 Discussion Treatments for Gastrointestinal & Endocrine Disorders

  1. Describe diagnostic criteria for nausea and vomiting and treatment recommendations 

     Though symptoms rather than illnesses, nausea, and vomiting need a thorough examination to determine their underlying cause, which may range from gastrointestinal problems to problems with the central nervous system, a comprehensive patient history and physical examination are the first stages in the diagnostic process. Laboratory testing and imaging may be added later to help identify underlying disorders. The significance of customized medicine in managing these symptoms is emphasized by the need to determine the reason for focused therapy. According to Jin et al. (2020), strategies for prevention vary depending on the situation, and multimodal prophylaxis might reduce risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting by using antiemetics before surgery. Reducing nausea and vomiting related to pregnancy and illnesses like gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is primarily dependent on food and lifestyle changes. There are many different ways to treat this condition. These include non-pharmacological techniques like acupressure, ginger, and water and pharmaceutical therapies like antiemetics (dopamine and serotonin antagonists). Treatment options are customized for each patient, considering their underlying reason and unique elements. This ensures effectiveness while reducing adverse effects. Understanding gains and novel treatment approaches keep improving how these difficult symptoms are managed, improving patient care and recovery. 

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  1. Discuss symptoms of GERD, complications, and drug management 

     Maret-Ouda et al. (2020) report that 20% of individuals in high-income nations suffer from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which can affect their health-related quality of life. Recurrent heartburn and regurgitation are signs of GERD, which may lead to esophagitis, strictures, Barrett’s esophagus, and cancer. Obesity, smoking, and genetic susceptibility increase the risk of GERD, highlighting the role of lifestyle in its development and control. Heartburn and regurgitation, commonly diagnosed as GERD, are treated by empirical therapy with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), the mainstay of GERD care. Omeprazole at 20 mg daily reduces stomach acid output to relieve symptoms and avoid problems. In cases when PPI medication fails or diagnosis is unclear, endoscopy, esophageal manometry, and pH monitoring are recommended. Patients with malignancy symptoms or a higher risk of esophageal cancer should undergo endoscopy. GERD management requires lifestyle changes in addition to medication. Weight reduction and smoking cessation are advised due to the condition’s lifestyle link. PPIs remain the foundation of therapy, but long-term side effects need caution, prompting the search for alternatives. For certain people, laparoscopic fundoplication is a more intrusive alternative when medicinal treatment fails or is not tolerated. 

  1. Compare and contrast Crohn’s disease and Ulcerative colitis 

     The two most common types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which affect millions of people worldwide and have a significant effect on both health and society, are ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). Even though they are both classified as IBD, UC and CD differ in several ways. Only the colon and rectum are affected by UC, characterized by persistent inflammation that begins in the rectum and uniformly spreads proximally. Usually, its inflammation is restricted to the colon’s mucosal layer. Abdominal discomfort, bloody diarrhea, and the need to urinate are common symptoms. On the other hand, CD may cause inflammation that can permeate all layers of the gut wall and impact any area of the gastrointestinal system, from the mouth to the anus. This inflammation is often patchy. This may result from complications, including strictures, fistulas, and abscesses. The symptoms of CD may vary widely and include lethargy, diarrhea, weight loss, and abdominal discomfort. According to Jairaith and Feagan (2020), It is believed that in genetically vulnerable people, both illnesses result from an incorrect immunological response to environmental variables. Environmental factors that alter one’s diet, smoke, or come into contact with microorganisms are important in their etiology. However, their different clinical presentations and problems reflect the specific differences in the intricate interactions between genetics and environment. Despite these distinctions, both disorders need a complex care strategy that sometimes involves surgery, medication, and lifestyle changes. 


4. Discuss Diabetes, its causes, symptoms, and treatment  

     Type 2 diabetes, a chronic illness characterized by insulin resistance and insufficient insulin production, is becoming more common worldwide. Genetics and lifestyle factors, including obesity, sedentary behavior, poor food, and aging, are the main culprits. Environment and contemporary lifestyle influence its growth. Type 2 diabetes symptoms are modest and grow slowly, making early identification difficult. Thirst, frequent urination, hunger, weariness, hazy eyesight, and poor wound healing are common complaints. Many people are detected inadvertently via regular blood tests after years of no notable symptoms (Advania, 2020). Type 2 diabetes therapy focuses on reducing blood glucose to avoid complications. Dietary adjustments, weight reduction, and exercise are essential to controlling this illness. These adjustments may correct prediabetes and enhance insulin sensitivity. Metformin is the first-line treatment since it lowers blood glucose and is safe. Advanced treatments may include SGLT2 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists, and insulin. CGM devices have transformed diabetes care by providing comprehensive glucose trends and tighter glucose control. Time in Range (TIR), a CGM parameter, measures how often an individual’s glucose levels are within target values and is an essential diabetes management objective. It evaluates medication and lifestyle changes for individualized diabetes control. 


Advani, A. (2020). Positioning time in range in diabetes management. Diabetologia, 63(2), 242-252. 

Jairath, V., & Feagan, B. G. (2020). Global burden of inflammatory bowel disease. The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 5(1), 2-3. 

Jin, Z., Gan, T. J., & Bergese, S. D. (2020). Prevention and treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV): a review of current recommendations and emerging therapies. Therapeutics and   Clinical Risk Management, 1305-1317. 

Maret-Ouda, J., Markar, S. R., & Lagergren, J. (2020). Gastroesophageal reflux disease: a review. Jama, 324(24), 2536-2547. 

  Sample Answer 2 for NUR 600 Module 5 Discussion Treatments for Gastrointestinal & Endocrine Disorders

Module 5 Discussion: Treatments for Gastrointestinal & Endocrine Disorders 

Question 1: Nausea and Vomiting Treatment Recommendations Diagnostic Criteria Description 

Nausea and vomiting are regarded as common symptoms likely to emerge as a recurrent or a chronic condition, complicated to manage in most instances. nausea refers to the discomfort and subjective tension within the stomach leading to vomiting (Heckroth et al., 2021). Significantly, vomiting is a stomach contents forceful expulsion via the mouth. In most instances, nausea and vomiting are likely to occur in parallel or independently of one another as a result of the different pathophysiologic mechanisms (Heckroth et al., 2021). The diagnostic criteria for vomiting and nausea incorporate their recurrence and persistent episodes. In most instances, these conditions are linked with different medical conditions like infections, pregnancy, neurological conditions, and gastrointestinal issues. 

Several treatments are directed at ‘nausea and vomiting.  The primary treatment is grounded in the underlying cause. Usually, the common strategies initiated for managing the underlying cause incorporate the administration of antiemetic medication like promethazine helpful for controlling vomiting and nausea (Heckroth et al., 2021). Another one involves the treatment of infections capable of resulting in vomiting and nausea. 

Question 2: GERD Symptoms, Complications, and Drug Management Discussion 

GERD is a digestive system disorder. Typically, this condition is primarily caused by the stomach contents of gastric acid flowing back into the esophagus. The primary symptom associated with GERD is heartburn (University of Rochester Medical Center, 2024). This entails a burning pain in the chest starting primarily behind the breastbone shifting up to the threat and neck and can last up to two hours (University of Rochester Medical Center, 2024). Several complications are associated with GERD especially if it is left untreated. One of them is esophagitis which is esophagus inflammation prompted by the acid in stomach contents, resulting in esophagus lining bleeding and ulcers (University of Rochester Medical Center, 2024). The other one is esophagus narrowing which makes it complicated for one to swallow. Another one is Barrett’s esophagus, which translates to esophageal cancer (University of Rochester Medical Center, 2024). 

Primarily, the drug management of GERD involves modifications of lifestyle including weight loss, dietary changes, and avoiding foods that can trigger the condition. In addition, medications such as proton pump inhibitors like omeprazole and H2 receptor antagonists like ranitidine can be prescribed for symptom alleviation (University of Rochester Medical Center, 2024). Furthermore, surgical interventions can be considered in instances where medications fail to promote relief. 

Question 3: Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Comparison and Contrast 

 Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) commonly contracted by patients aged between 15 to 35 years. typically, this condition occurs in the vast part of the digestive tract comprising the stomach, esophagus, large intestines, and mouth (Saeid Seyedian et al., 2019). in addition, the mouth, anus, and the whole intestine layers are affected by the condition. On the contrary, ulcerative colitis is highly connected with severe pain, blood in stool, and diarrhea. In addition, ulcerative colitis is highly linked with rectal bleeding (Saeid Seyedian et al., 2019). 

The similarity between these two conditions is that they are all classified as inflammatory bowel disease. Another similarity is that the common symptoms of these conditions are abdominal pain, weight loss, and diarrhea. The other similarity is that they are both characterized by inflammation (Saeid Seyedian et al., 2019). 

Question 4: Diabetes Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Discussions 

 Diabetes is a chronic health condition primarily encountered when the pancreas fails to produce sufficient insulin in the body. In addition, it is associated with the body not using the produced insulin effectively. It is categorized as type 1 or type 2 diabetes (WHO, 2023). Type 1 diabetes is caused by the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas autoimmune destruction. Type 2 diabetes is caused by insulin resistance and deficiency of insulin connected with lifestyle factors and obesity (WHO, 2023). The common symptoms of diabetes include increased thirst feeling, blurred vision, tiredness feeling, urgency to urinate more than usual, and unintentional weight loss. Predominantly, the primary treatment includes the adoption of a healthy lifestyle (WHO, 2023). The other one entails the administration of medication like metformin for management of the blood sugar levels, 


Heckroth, M., Luckett, R. T., Moser, C., Parajuli, D., & Abell, T. L. (2021). Nausea and vomiting in 2021. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 55(4), 279-299.  

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