Peer Responses needed Week 3


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I need someone to provide peer responses to these two attached posts.  

  • You should respond to at least two peers by extending, refuting/correcting, or adding additional nuance to their posts.
  • Peerresponses.docx

Al'laiya Proff

State your research question and indicate the type of research that your question lends itself to (descriptive or inferential).

My research question is "What is the specific link between exposure to trauma and the occurrence of ASD, anxiety disorders, depression, and intellectual disability in youth aged 5-7 years old at Family Initiative?" and it lends itself to more inferential research than descriptive. 

Indicate whether your study will concern itself with differences or relationships.

My study focuses on relationships, specifically causal relationships as it aims to explore the association between variables i.e. exposure to trauma and development of autism and other disorders. 

Identify and describe each of the variables (independent and dependent variables for differences or correlational variables for relationship).

Independent variable: Exposure to trauma.

Dependent variable(s): Occurrence of autism spectrum disorder, anxiety disorder, depression, and intellectual disability (based on clinical diagnoses).

Be sure to describe the level of measurement of each variable (nominal, ordinal, or interval). 

I plan to use a nominal scale to measure trauma exposure based on types of abuse and/or neglect.

State one hypothesis for your research question.

Exposure to trauma in respect to frequency and severity will show a correlation to a higher prevalence of autism spectrum disorder, anxiety disorders, depression, and intellectual disability in youth aged 5-7 at Family Initiative.

Lolamaria C. Robbio

Research Question and Type of Research:

Research Question: How does parent involvement in secondary education impact student academic achievement?

Type of Research:

The research aims to investigate the impact of parent involvement in secondary education on student academic achievement, focusing on exploring the relationships between different variables. The study will primarily examine the correlation between parental involvement and students' academic performance.

Variables and Their Description:

Independent Variable: Parent Involvement

Parent involvement, the independent variable, refers to the level of engagement and participation of parents in their child's educational activities and school-related events, including attending parent-teacher meetings, assisting with homework, and participating in school events. This variable will be measured on an ordinal scale and categorized into levels ranging from minimal to high involvement based on the extent and frequency of parents' participation.

Levels of Measurement: Ordinal

Explanation: Parent involvement can be categorized into different levels based on the extent and frequency of parents' participation. For example:

Level 1: Minimal involvement: occasional attendance at parent-teacher meetings and attending school events.

Level 2: Moderate involvement: Regular assistance with homework, keeping grades/behavior/ attendance up to date, and showing up to Parent-teacher conferences.

Level 3: High involvement: PTSA/EESAC/ Parent Volunteer/assist in all or most special events

Dependent Variable: Student Academic Achievement

The dependent variable, student academic achievement, includes measurable outcomes such as grades, standardized test scores, and other academic metrics reflecting a student's performance in school. Academic achievement will be assessed at the interval level. It will encompass factors such as grade point average (GPA) and standardized test scores, commonly used to evaluate students' overall performance and compare their achievements.

Description: Student academic achievement encompasses measurable outcomes such as grades, standardized test scores, and other academic metrics that reflect a student's performance in school.

Level of Measurement: Interval

Explanation: Academic achievement is continually assessed using quantitative and qualitative measures to capture meaningful differences between individual performance levels. This ongoing assessment allows educators to understand students' progress and potential areas for improvement comprehensively.

The grade point average (GPA) is a standard way of measuring academic achievement in the United States. It ranges from 0.0 to 4.0, with 4.0 being the highest achievable GPA. Schools and universities commonly use this scale to evaluate a student's overall performance, and it is an essential factor in determining academic standing and eligibility for various programs and scholarships.

Standardized test scores are typically reported on a predetermined scale to ensure consistent and precise comparisons. For example, SAT scores are often reported on a scale ranging from 400 to 1600, providing a standardized framework for evaluating and comparing students' performance.


The hypothesis suggests a direct and positive correlation between parent involvement in secondary education and student academic achievement, indicating that as parent involvement increases, so does student academic achievement. Studies have shown that active parent involvement, including attending parent-teacher conferences, helping with homework, and participating in school events, positively impacts students' grades, attendance, and attitudes toward learning.

The post Peer Responses needed Week 3 first appeared on Ivory Lessons.

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