Pioneering vs Digital Epidemiology Essay Paper

Pioneering vs Digital Epidemiology Essay Paper

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Epidemiologic tools have advanced since Dr. John Snow investigated the cholera epidemic in 1854 in London. Dr. Snow observed everything in the area of those who died. He made a map of the locations of all deaths and noticed that they were near a water pump on Broad Street. He interviewed people to find a common reason for them to become ill. He saw that those breathing the air in the high-risk area, those with access to clean water or who consumed beer did not get cholera. “Snow brought all his biological, medical and social knowledge into his enquiries and within medicine he deployed clinical, pathological, microscopical and chemical skills and knowledge which he expressed logically”, (Tulchinsky, 2018). He used statistical rates after studying two water supply systems and developed a theory that water near the system by the Thames River was contaminated with the excrement of those who had cholera. When the water pump handle was removed, rates of cholera drastically decreased. In his investigations, he considered frequency, distribution and determinants of disease. Pioneering vs Digital Epidemiology Essay Paper


Today, we still use frequency, distribution and determinants of disease using maps, statistics, interviewing of patients and developing theories, however the CDC and state and city departments of health receive required reporting of specific organisms from hospitals, clinics and laboratories. The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) of the CDC is specially trained to investigate outbreaks and epidemics. They and state epidemiologists can be called to assist with investigations. With computerization, outbreaks and epidemics can be identified quickly. Hospitals have computerized laboratory surveillance programs which notify Infection Prevention staff when an unusual organism or an increase in harmful organisms occurs. There is a distinct step by step way to investigate a possible epidemic or outbreak. With digital epidemiology more prevalent with the use of tablets, iPhone and computers, the Internet Technology (IT) staff must secure these devices for legal reasons and in order to protect patient confidential information as per the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)Pioneering vs Digital Epidemiology Essay Paper.

The discovery of bacteria transmission helped practices evident today because it made epidemiologists realize that disease could be spread by the chain of infection, mainly a pathogen, a susceptible host, a portal of entry, a mode of transmission, a portal of exit and a reservoir. It also helped to confirm that transmission could be airborne, by droplet or by contact with an infectious agent. The implications for public health are that “knowledge of the portals of exit and entry and modes of transmission provides a basis for determining appropriate control measures”., *Get Education Skills (2020)Pioneering vs Digital Epidemiology Essay Paper.

Tulchinsky TH. (2018). John Snow, Cholera, the Broad Street Pump; Waterborne Diseases Then and Now. Case Studies in Public Health. 77–99. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-804571-8.00017-2. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Get Education Skills. (2020). Chain of Infection Definition?. Pioneering vs Digital Epidemiology Essay Paper


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