PSY FPX 8842 Assessment 3 Working with Diverse Populations on Social Cohesion

PSY FPX 8842 Assessment 3 Working with Diverse Populations on Social Cohesion

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PSY FPX 8842 Assessment 3 Working with Diverse Populations on Social Cohesion

Student Name

Capella University

PSY FPX 8842 Applied Sport Psychology

Prof. Name


Working with Diverse Populations to Enhance Social Cohesion

Team success, whether at the amateur or professional level, is heavily reliant on social cohesion. Cohesion, as elucidated by Eys and Kim (2017), pertains to the athletes’ perceptions of unity and their personal commitment to both the task and social objectives of the team. Achieving cohesion can be particularly challenging for National Football League (NFL) clubs, which undergo over 200 transactions per season on average (Spotrac, 2019). This challenge is compounded by prevalent social issues such as police brutality and racial inequality in the United States, making the attainment of cohesion even more elusive. Despite initial hesitations, the NFL officially embraced social justice initiatives, notably through the Inspire Change Program (NFL, 2020), subsequent to a former player’s kneeling protest during the National Anthem in 2016.

The demographic makeup of NFL athletes further complicates cohesion efforts. According to The Institute for Diversity and Ethics in Sport (2019), 70.1% of NFL athletes are non-white, a stark contrast to the 39.9% non-white population in the United States (U.S. Census Bureau, 2019). However, until recently, public support from the league for its non-white players had been lacking. Addressing cohesion thus requires tailored approaches for different athlete groups, grounded in an understanding of their backgrounds and experiences.

For white athletes, fostering comprehension of racial inequality and its impact on their non-white counterparts is imperative. This involves engaging in simple yet impactful activities that draw upon personal experiences, such as reflecting on unfair treatment based on arbitrary differences, such as offensive versus defensive roles (NFL Communications, 2020). Conversely, non-white athletes require environments conducive to open dialogue, necessitating patience from their white counterparts, who may require time to grasp unfamiliar concepts shaped by their distinct upbringings (Crace & Hardy, 1997).

PSY FPX 8842 Assessment 3 Working with Diverse Populations on Social Cohesion

Similarly, coaching staff must navigate gender dynamics to achieve social cohesion. Despite increased female involvement in football, the coaching realm remains predominantly male. This gender disparity, highlighted by The Institute for Diversity and Ethics in Sport (2019), underscores the need for concerted efforts to address gender-based biases and microaggressions within coaching circles (Yang & Carroll, 2018).

For male coaches, recognizing and rectifying unconscious biases, such as microaggressions, is crucial. Empowering female coaches involves providing them with assertiveness training and conflict resolution skills to navigate potential tensions arising from differing coaching styles (Hanrahan & Andersen, 2010).

In conclusion, direct intervention emerges as the most effective strategy for fostering social cohesion among coaches and athletes. Yukelson’s (1997) four-part intervention model—assessment, education, brainstorming, and implementation—provides a structured framework for facilitating team-building initiatives. By actively involving participants in the process, this approach fosters receptivity and minimizes the influence of preconceived notions, thereby promoting inclusive environments conducive to cohesion (Eys & Kim, 2017).

However, while strides toward cohesion are commendable, cultural nuances and individual differences pose ongoing challenges. Vigilance is necessary to prevent exclusionary behaviors and maintain a balance between social closeness and constructive criticism, essential for sustained progress in task cohesion within sports teams.


Eys, M., & Kim, J. (2017). Team Building and Group Cohesion in the Context of Sport and Performance Psychology. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Psychology, 0.

Hanrahan, S. J., & Andersen, M. B. (2010). Routledge handbook of applied sport psychology: A comprehensive guide for students and practitioners. Abingdon, Oxon, England: Routledge.


NFL Communications. (2020). Houston, Florida, Saint Thomas Aquinas produce most NFL players.,-Florida,-Saint-Thomas-Aquinasproduce-most-NFL-players.aspx

Spotrac. (2019). NFL Transactions. Spotrac.Com.

The Institute for Diversity and Ethics in Sport (TIDES). (2019). 2019 Racial and Gender Report Card.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2019). U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: United States. Census Bureau QuickFacts.

PSY FPX 8842 Assessment 3 Working with Diverse Populations on Social Cohesion

Yang, Y., & Carroll, D. W. (2018). Gendered microaggressions in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Leadership and Research in Education, 4, 28-45.

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