PSYC FPX 4300 Assessment 2 Off to the Intervention We go

PSYC FPX 4300 Assessment 2 Off to the Intervention We go


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Capella University

PSYC FPX 4300 Introduction to Addiction Treatment

Prof. Name


Intervention: Sam & Brad’s Drug-Fueled Codependency


In the featured episode of Season 19, Episode 1, the intervention for Sam and Brad was highlighted. Samantha, aged 28, suffered from hepatitis C, a disease primarily transmitted through needle sharing, which can lead to liver failure. Her history of migraine and subsequent overuse of analgesics, starting in high school, set the stage for her later dependence on prescription opioids. Brad, on the other hand, became addicted to heroin following a serious accident at the age of 22. Their paths crossed, both struggling with opioid addiction, ultimately leading to a codependent relationship fueled by drugs (Browne et al., 2019).

Addiction Concepts and Relevant Criteria

Examining the criteria for opioid use disorder, particularly in light of the modifications outlined by Koob (2019), sheds light on Sam and Brad’s situation. The rise in opioid addiction and related fatalities globally has prompted efforts to mitigate the risks associated with opioid prescriptions (Klimas et al., 2019). Both Sam and Brad exhibit symptoms characteristic of addiction, including uncontrolled consumption and withdrawal symptoms. Their medical histories, combined with opioid use, contribute to the complexity of their addiction (Eichmeyer & Zhang, 2022).

Meeting Substance Use Disorder Criteria

According to the DSM-5, drug addiction is marked by dysfunctional behaviors that significantly impair social functioning and overall well-being. Opioid addiction, a chronic disease, can lead to severe personal and social consequences (Arterberry et al., 2019). Despite their differing health statuses, both Sam and Brad exhibit behaviors indicative of opioid addiction. Their codependent relationship revolves around drug use, further complicating their situation (Boyda et al., 2020).

Current Stage of Addiction

Transitioning from substance dependence to recovery entails a challenging journey. Sam and Brad’s codependency has become the cornerstone of their relationship, complicating their path to sobriety. Brad’s health complications, including liver toxicity and hepatitis C, underscore the severity of their situation (Messina & Worley, 2019).

Appropriateness of Rehabilitation

Despite familial support, Sam and Brad initially struggle to pursue treatment together. Ultimately, they opt for separate rehabilitation programs to address their individual needs. Inpatient and residential programs offer structured care to aid individuals in overcoming drug dependency (Beetham et al., 2021).


Sam and Brad’s journey into drug addiction underscores the importance of responsible opioid prescribing practices. Their intertwined struggles highlight the complexities of addiction and the critical need for comprehensive treatment approaches.


Arterberry, B. J., Boyd, C. J., West, B. T., Schepis, T. S., & McCabe, S. E. (2019). DSM-5 Substance use disorders among college-age young adults in the United States: Prevalence, remission, and treatment. Journal of American College Health, 1–8.

Beetham, T., Saloner, B., Gaye, M., Wakeman, S. E., Frank, R. G., & Barnett, M. L. (2021). Admission practices and cost of care for opioid use disorder at residential addiction treatment programs in The US. Health Affairs, 40(2), 317–325.

Boyda, S., Ivsins, A., & Murrayc, D. (2020). Problematizing the DSM-5 criteria for opioid use disorder: A qualitative analysis. International Journal of Drug Policy, 78, 102690.

Browne, C. J., Godino, A., Salery, M., & Nestler, E. J. (2019). Epigenetic mechanisms of opioid addiction. Biological Psychiatry, 87(1).

Eichmeyer, S., & Zhang, J. (2022). Pathways into opioid dependence: evidence from practice variation in emergency departments. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 14(4), 271–300.

Klimas, J., Gorfinkel, L., Fairbairn, N., Amato, L., Ahamad, K., Nolan, S., Simel, D. L., & Wood, E. (2019). Strategies to identify patient risks of prescription opioid addiction when initiating opioids for pain. JAMA Network Open, 2(5), e193365.

PSYC FPX 4300 Assessment 2 Off to the Intervention We go

Koob, G. F. (2019). Neurobiology of opioid addiction: opponent process, hyperkatifeia, and negative reinforcement. Biological Psychiatry, 87(1).

Messina, B. G., & Worley, M. J. (2019). Effects of craving on opioid use are attenuated after pain-coping counseling in adults with chronic pain and prescription opioid addiction. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 87(10), 918–926.

Soffin, E. M., Lee, B. H., Kumar, K. K., & Wu, C. L. (2018). The prescription opioid crisis: Role of the anaesthesiologist in reducing opioid use and misuse. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 122(6).

Strang, J., Volkow, N. D., Degenhardt, L., Hickman, M., Johnson, K., Koob, G. F., Marshall, B. D. L., Tyndall, M., & Walsh, S. L. (2020). Opioid use disorder. Nature Reviews Disease Primers, 6(1), 1–28.

Wang, S.-C., Chen, Y.-C., Lee, C.-H., & Cheng, C.-M. (2019). opioid addiction, genetic susceptibility, and medical treatments: a review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20(17).

PSYC FPX 4300 Assessment 2 Off to the Intervention We go

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