The Differences In The Psychotherapeutic Approaches

The Differences In The Psychotherapeutic Approaches

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FIRST DISCUSSION: Discuss the key differences between the therapeutic approaches covered in this week’s reading. Are there differences in the psychotherapeutic approaches that may impact patient acceptance of the techniques presented in this module? Gestalt therapy, Person-centered therapy, Interpersonal Psychotherapy, Motivational Interviewing (MI), and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (CBT) are some of the most influential existing psychological theories, and they are widely used by counselors and therapists in their practice. The differences in these therapeutic approaches relate to the stance the therapist takes while engaging with the client. Gestalt therapy, for instance, believes that people need to be aware of their continuing relationships with their surroundings, and that awareness, choice, and responsibilities are the pillars of this therapy method (Corey, 2017)The Differences In The Psychotherapeutic Approaches.


The purpose of this sort of treatment is for the client to become aware of what they are going through right now, and change will occur because of this awareness (Corey, 2017). Person-centered therapy (PCT) which was founded by Carl Rogers also differs from Gestalt therapy in that in PCT, the therapist and the client work collaboratively as partners, while in Gestalt therapy, the therapist assists the client to identify the complex struggles by using experiments to help the client recognize themselves and explore resistance that could be hampering the client’s progression. In PCT, emphasis is placed on the personal relationship between client and therapist. The therapistâ€s genuine communication of trust, understanding, and empathy ignite a therapeutic outcome for the patient; the more positive and present the therapist is, the better the patient outcome. Similarly, PCT lacks specific techniques and emphasizes the importance of the client’s role in making the therapy a success. In both Gestalt therapy and PCT therapy, the client is viewed as an expert and collaborates with the therapist. The role of the therapist is to guide the client to achieve the set goals. Gestalt therapy is most beneficial to populations who are overly socialized and constructed individuals, while PCT is ideal for a variety of patients and settings, such as the initial phase of crisis intervention, multiple disorders, group counseling, and individual therapy. In these therapeutic approaches, the client is expected to be active and participate in experiments to extend moment-to-moment experiences (Austin & Austin, 2019)The Differences In The Psychotherapeutic Approaches.

Unlike Gestalt and PCT, interpersonal therapy utilizes communication and attachment theories to help clients address current concerns and improve their interrelationships. Interpersonal therapy aims to improve the client’s social functioning and interpersonal relationships to help reduce their psychological problems. This therapeutic approach was developed as a brief therapy for depression since patients with depression often experience problems in their interpersonal relationships (Goulder, 2020). The therapist helps clients address interpersonal issues by focusing on identifiable problems in how an individual interacts with others. The goal is to help the client realize the benefit of their experience of symptoms. Interpersonal therapy differs from CBT and PCT in that it is less directive as it focuses on the client’s specified target areas without dwelling on their personality traits. Interpersonal therapy is ideal for clients with depressive symptoms and those with interpersonal relationship issues arising from other psychological disorders. Motivational interviewing (MI) is another therapeutic approach like PCT in that it combines a humanistic, client-centered, and psychosocial approach (Corey, 2017)The Differences In The Psychotherapeutic Approaches.

This type of therapy was once used to treat people who had alcohol issues, but it is now being utilized to treat a wide range of mental illnesses (Corey, 2017). MI therapists emphasize self-responsibility and collaborate with clients to find answers to their problems (Corey, 2017). The therapist motivates clients to talk about their need for change and their reasons for their intention to change. MI is short-term that requires just one or two sessions to achieve the goals. Compared to Gestalt, PCT, interpersonal therapy, and MI, CBT emphasizes that the client’s problems originate from illogical and irrational beliefs, faulty thinking, and failure to differentiate reality from fantasy (Goulder, 2020). Unlike Gestalt, PCT, interpersonal therapy, and MI, CBT purposes to restructure dysfunctional behavior and emotions by altering flawed and incorrect thinking (Austin & Austin, 2019). It achieves this by educating clients on practical skills to make and sustain changes over time. By shifting their thought processes and beliefs, clients can change their behavior and strive toward a better life. Like PCT, MI, and Gestalt, CBT expects clients to be active participants and collaborate with the therapist through all phases of therapy. The therapeutic approach utilizes different methods, including Socratic dialogue, to assist clients in discovering their misconceptions about their lives (Corey, 2017)The Differences In The Psychotherapeutic Approaches.

One of the main goals of CBT is to enable patients to see that their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors impact functional living and gain control over how they think, feel, behave, and experience the world. Like PCT, MI, Interpersonal therapy, and Gestalt therapy, CBT is patient-centered, structured, and can address a variety of psychological disorders, including mood disorders, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsiveness. However, CBT is not ideal for clients whose beliefs are centered on past experiences. Discuss how you may include these psychotherapeutic approaches in your future PMHNP practice. With what patient population(s) do you think you will use these psychotherapeutic approaches, and why/why not? These psychotherapeutic approaches may be included in my future PMHNP practice by forming a collaborative relationship with clients which is essential to enhance therapeutic outcomes. Ensuring a collaborative relationship with clients aligns with PCT, MI, and Gestalt therapy. Another concept is the belief that the client is an expert in their own life, meaning that clients are responsible for their actions in life. I believe that psychotherapy requires therapists to utilize approaches tailored to the client’s needs; thus, PCT, Gestalt, CBT, IP, and MI are critical for my future PMHNP. Gestalt therapy, for instance, is ideal for clients who are constricted, restrained and over-socialized since it focuses on improving their awareness of the impacts of thoughts and actions have on their daily living. However, the Gestalt approach is not suited to severely disturbed clients since the techniques applied are inapplicable. PCT is best suited to a variety of patient settings, including patient-child relations, individual therapy, and group counseling (Corey, 2017). I would utilize PCT in group sessions since significant movement can occur if the three core conditions are present. I can expect my clients to be more receptive to change and be willing to open up by establishing acceptance, safety, and trust in my practice. Interpersonal therapy is ideal for clients with depressive symptoms and those with interpersonal relationship issues arising from other psychological disorders (Corey, 2017)The Differences In The Psychotherapeutic Approaches.

I see myself utilizing IP in clients experiencing interpersonal relationships and social functioning issues since it aims at helping the client realize the benefit of their experience of symptoms. Motivational interviewing can be incorporated into my future practice when working with clients experiencing substance use issues, different addictions, and chronic procrastination. MI works well with clients seeking to change their behavior by seeking motivation and guidance. CBT can be utilized across the lifespan of adults, adolescents, and children, which increases versatility. This approach is ideal for clients seeking structure and who are comfortable with a focused approach. I would apply CBT due to its ability to achieve positive outcomes. SECOND DISCUSSION: Discuss the key differences between the therapeutic approaches covered in this week’s reading. Are there differences in the psychotherapeutic approaches that may impact patient acceptance of the techniques presented in this module? There are a variety of differences between the therapeutic approaches of person-centered therapy, Gestalt therapy, and behavioral therapy (including CBT/DBT). These differences are mainly rooted in therapeutic goals of therapy, the relationship between client and therapist, and techniques and procedures of the approach. For the simplicity of discussion, differences will be contrasted back to the humanistic approach of person-centered therapy founded by Carl Rogers (Wheeler, 2022). The goals of person-centered therapy are to provide an atmosphere of safety and trust in the therapeutic setting with the purpose of assisting the client in the growth process which can enable improved ability to cope with current and future problems. Rather than being a fixed product of their external environment, the client favors movement towards increased openness, greater self-trust, increased willingness to grow, and living by their own standards. Although dubbed “person-centered”, the therapeutic relationship in the approach stresses the attitudes and personal characteristics of the therapist and the nature of the client-therapist relationship as the primary determinants of therapy. The Differences In The Psychotherapeutic Approaches

Such qualities of the therapist include but are not limited to genuineness, accurate empathy, and unconditional acceptance of and respect for the client. Without these qualities, client change cannot occur, and they will be unable to translate therapy learnings to their external relationships. The techniques and procedures of the approach aligns with the therapist-client relationship via prioritizing active listening and hearing, empathetic understanding, presence, reflection of feelings, and clarification with the clientâ€s perceptions of reality the focal point of therapy. A variation of these processes that developed is called motivational interviewing in which the approach is modified to be purposefully directive rather than nondirective and unstructured through open-ended questions, guiding of a discussion of ambivalence, and drawing out and promoting change-talk (Corey, 2017). On the other hand, Gestalt therapy is direct in its approach and has the goal of experiencing and attaining awareness and choice expansion. These two concepts with the addition of responsibility work in cohesion with each other. This is done by assisting clients in noting their personal awareness process, so that they can be responsible for and delineate the choices they make to be able to recognize dismissed aspects of the self in the hopes of reintegrating all its parts. In addition, Gestalt therapy emphasizes I/Thou relationship rather than the techniques incorporated by the therapist. Clients are the experts of their own experiences and greater trust is placed in them. Therefore, the client is the main driving force of the approach, and the therapist is a guide that introduces experiments and shares observations. By undergoing presented experiments of reexperiencing past situations (most often through role playing), clients gain improved awareness of the disruptions within themselves for optimal functioning in the present moment (Corey, 2017). Behavioral therapies, including the blended methods of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), identify specific goals at the start of the therapeutic process. These identified and client-specific goals are utilized to increase personal choice and to produce new conditions for learning in hopes of ceasing maladaptive behaviors and creating improved effective behavior patterns. The techniques of behavioral therapies differ from person-centered in that the therapist explores alternative routes of action and their consequences. The Differences In The Psychotherapeutic Approaches

This includes teaching concrete skills through instruction, modeling, and performance feedback. This requires the therapist to employ various relationship styes rather than a single steady one to tailor to the specific issues experienced by different clients. Collaboration and active participation of the client is necessary throughout therapy and a varied collection of techniques possessed and incorporated by the therapist is aimed at behavior change (Corey, 2017). Acceptance of these approaches and their variations by patients also differs based on the techniques employed. For example, since person-centered therapy is the least directive, prioritizes therapist characteristics and quality of client-therapist relationship, and reinforces positive self-talk (as seen in motivational interviewing) patients are more likely to accept this sort of approach due to its safety and nonconfrontational climate. Since practitioners of Gestalt therapy require patients to relive painful or prominent moments in their lives in the present moment, they may be less inclined to accept this approach or require significant preparations for these experiences. Finally, although behavioral therapies require active participation by the patient and compliance with practitioner provided therapeutic activities, it is the most flexible and individualized. This makes acceptance of behavioral techniques more adaptive (Corey, 2017).


Discuss how you may include these psychotherapeutic approaches with your future PMHNP practice. With what patient population(s) do you think you will use these psychotherapeutic approaches, and why/why not? Of the psychotherapeutic approaches discussed, each can play a role in my future PMHNP practice. However, the applicability and efficiency of carrying them out depends on the patient population and my own personal preference. Person-centered and behavioral therapies are most in line with my current practice in inpatient psychiatry and the ones I witness different members of the treatment team utilizing (i.e., behavioral health specialists, psychiatrists, and social workers). In terms of person-centered, I incorporate active listening, empathy, and fully being there with my patients as they reflect and clarify their feelings daily. I have found person-centered therapy to be helpful in the initial stages of building rapport with them and can see myself utilizing it in this way regardless of clinical setting. Also, it can aid in facilitating patient compliance by “setting the stage” for other therapies or interventions as demonstrated by Farber et al. (2018) in which positive regard, an aspect of person-centered care, was shown to have a positive association with improved patient outcomes. In addition to person-centered therapy, I utilize behavior therapy-based techniques when working with abnormal behavioral patients or those developmentally delayed, such as those with ADHD or varying degrees of autism spectrum disorder, respectively. In addition to these types of patients, behavior therapy can apply to most if not all sorts of patient populations in the realm of psychiatry to treat a variety of disorders such as those with obsessive-compulsive disorder as found in a systematic review by Kafes (2021) in which techniques such as virtual reality, exposure, response prevention, and psychoeducation appeared to be effective in the treatment of OCD in the various analyzed studies. The techniques I use currently and will continue to use in future advanced practice include self-modification programs, modeling, and behavior rehearsal. Gestalt therapy seems to be the approach I am least likely to incorporate since I have not been exposed to it in my current practice and I am unlikely to work with less mentally disturbed patients (Corey, 2017). However, the implications and concepts of Gestalt therapy still hold value as seen in the literature in which Gestalt research benefitted children and adolescents in areas such as emotional self-expression, conflict resolution, self-esteem, decreased depression, trauma symptoms, etc. (Stripling, 2021). As the literature suggested, I can possibly incorporate Gestalt techniques of I/Thou in the patients I have built up rapport with via a person-centered approach and connect them to each other in a group session to deepen moment-by-moment experiential growth (Corey, 2017). The Differences In The Psychotherapeutic Approaches

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